Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks PDF Author: Janet Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317631609
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 357

Get Book

Book Description
It is often assumed that picturebooks are for very young readers because of their emphasis on the illustrations and their scarcity of text; however, there are increasing numbers of picturebooks where the age of the implied reader is questionable. These are picturebooks whose controversial subject matter and unconventional, often unsettling style of illustration challenge the reader, pushing them to question and probe deeper to understand what the book is about. In addition to the book challenging the reader, the reader often challenges the book in an attempt to understand what is being said. These increasingly popular picturebooks work on many different levels; they are truly polysemic and worthy of in-depth analysis. They push the reader to ask questions and in many instances are intrinsically philosophical, often dealing with fundamental life issues. Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks examines these unconventional, non-conformist picturebooks, considering what they are, their audience and their purpose. It also considers: Children’s and adults’ thoughts on these kinds of picturebooks. How challenging and unsettling wordless picturebooks can play with the mind and promote philosophical thought. What creates non-conformity and strangeness ... is it the illustrations and their style, the subject matter or a combination of both? Why certain countries create, promote and accept these picturebooks more than others. Why certain picturebooks are censored and what factors are in play when these decisions are made. The role of publishers in translating and publishing these picturebooks. Children’s creative and critical responses to strange, unsettling and often disturbing visual texts. This inspiring and thought-provoking volume explores the work of a number of highly respected, international picturebook experts and includes an exclusive interview with the legendary Klaus Flugge, Managing Director of Andersen Press, one of the few remaining independent children’s book publishers in England. It is an indispensable reference for all interested in or working with picturebooks, including researchers, students in higher and teacher education, English advisors/inspectors, literacy consultants and classroom teachers.

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks PDF Author: Janet Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317631595
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 356

Get Book

Book Description
It is often assumed that picturebooks are for very young readers because of their emphasis on the illustrations and their scarcity of text; however, there are increasing numbers of picturebooks where the age of the implied reader is questionable. These are picturebooks whose controversial subject matter and unconventional, often unsettling style of illustration challenge the reader, pushing them to question and probe deeper to understand what the book is about. In addition to the book challenging the reader, the reader often challenges the book in an attempt to understand what is being said. These increasingly popular picturebooks work on many different levels; they are truly polysemic and worthy of in-depth analysis. They push the reader to ask questions and in many instances are intrinsically philosophical, often dealing with fundamental life issues. Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks examines these unconventional, non-conformist picturebooks, considering what they are, their audience and their purpose. It also considers: Children’s and adults’ thoughts on these kinds of picturebooks. How challenging and unsettling wordless picturebooks can play with the mind and promote philosophical thought. What creates non-conformity and strangeness ... is it the illustrations and their style, the subject matter or a combination of both? Why certain countries create, promote and accept these picturebooks more than others. Why certain picturebooks are censored and what factors are in play when these decisions are made. The role of publishers in translating and publishing these picturebooks. Children’s creative and critical responses to strange, unsettling and often disturbing visual texts. This inspiring and thought-provoking volume explores the work of a number of highly respected, international picturebook experts and includes an exclusive interview with the legendary Klaus Flugge, Managing Director of Andersen Press, one of the few remaining independent children’s book publishers in England. It is an indispensable reference for all interested in or working with picturebooks, including researchers, students in higher and teacher education, English advisors/inspectors, literacy consultants and classroom teachers.

Exploring Challenging Picturebooks in Education

Exploring Challenging Picturebooks in Education PDF Author: Åse Marie Ommundsen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000413748
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 344

Get Book

Book Description
What should children and students read? This volume explores challenging picturebooks as learning materials in early childhood education, primary and secondary school, and even universities. It addresses a wide range of thematic, cognitive, and aesthetic challenges and educational affordances of picturebooks in various languages and from different countries. Written by leading and emerging scholars in the field of picturebook studies and literacy research, the book discusses the impact of challenging picturebooks in a comprehensive manner and combines theoretical considerations, picturebook analyses, and empirical studies with children and students. It introduces stimulating picturebooks from all continents and how they are used or may be used in educational settings and contexts. The chapters touch on subjects like reading promotion, second-language acquisition, art education, interdisciplinary learning, empathy development, minority issues, and intercultural competence. Moreover, they consider relevant aspects of the educational environments, such as the inclusion of picturebooks in the curriculum, the significance of school libraries, and the impact of publishers. Exploring Challenging Picturebooks in Education sheds new light on the multiple dimensions relevant to investigating the impact of picturebooks on learning processes and the development of multimodal literacy competencies. It thus makes a significant contribution to the growing area of picturebook research and will be key reading for educators, researchers, and post-graduate students in the field of literacy studies, children’s literature, and education research.

Children Reading Picturebooks

Children Reading Picturebooks PDF Author: Evelyn Arizpe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317407601
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 238

Get Book

Book Description
Children Reading Pictures has made a huge impact on teachers, scholars and students all over the world. The original edition of this book described the fascinating range of children's responses to contemporary picturebooks, which proved that they are sophisticated readers of visual texts and are able to make sense of complex images on literal, visual and metaphorical levels. Through this research, the authors found that children are able to understand different viewpoints, analyse moods, messages and emotions, and articulate personal responses to picture books - even when they struggle with the written word. The study of picturebooks and children’s responses to them has increased dramatically in the 12 years since the first edition was published. Fully revised with a review of the most recent theories and critical work related to picturebooks and meaning-making, this new edition demonstrates how vital visual literacy is to children's understanding and development. The second edition: Includes three new case studies that address social issues, special needs and metafiction Summarises key finding from research with culturally diverse children Draws upon new research on response to digital picturebooks Provides guidelines for those contemplating research on response to picturebooks This book is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of children’s literature as well as providing important reading for Primary and Early Years teachers, literacy co-ordinators and all those interested in picturebooks.

Picturebooks: Representation and Narration

Picturebooks: Representation and Narration PDF Author: Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136670777
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 258

Get Book

Book Description
This volume discusses the aesthetic and cognitive challenges of modern picturebooks from different countries, such as Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and USA. The overarching issue concerns the mutual relationship between representation and narration by means of the picturebooks’ multimodal character. Moreover, this volume includes the main lines of debate and approaches to picturebooks by international leading researchers in the field. Topics covered are the impact of paratexts and interpictorial allusions, the relationship between artists’ books, crossover picturebooks, and picturebooks for adults, the narrative defiance of wordless picturebooks, the representation of emotions in images and text, and the depiction of hybrid characters in picturebooks. The enlargement of the picturebook corpus beyond an Anglo-American picturebook canon opens up new horizons and highlights the diverging styles and genre shifts in modern picturebooks. This tendency also demonstrates the influence of specific authors and illustrators on the appreciation of the picturebook genre, as in the case of Astrid Lindgren’s picturebooks and the picturebooks created by renowned illustrators, such as Anthony Browne, Wolf Erlbruch, Stian Hole, and Bruno Munari. This book will be the definite contribution to contemporary picturebook research for many years to come.

The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks

The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks PDF Author: Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317526597
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 526

Get Book

Book Description
Containing forty-eight chapters, The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks is the ultimate guide to picturebooks. It contains a detailed introduction, surveying the history and development of the field and emphasizing the international and cultural diversity of picturebooks. Divided into five key parts, this volume covers: Concepts and topics – from hybridity and ideology to metafiction and emotions; Genres – from baby books through to picturebooks for adults; Interfaces – their relations to other forms such as comics and visual media; Domains and theoretical approaches, including developmental psychology and cognitive studies; Adaptations. With ground-breaking contributions from leading and emerging scholars alike, this comprehensive volume is one of the first to focus solely on picturebook research. Its interdisciplinary approach makes it key for both scholars and students of literature, as well as education and media.

Literary Cultures and Twenty-First-Century Childhoods

Literary Cultures and Twenty-First-Century Childhoods PDF Author: Nathalie op de Beeck
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030321460
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 279

Get Book

Book Description
In the early decades of the twenty-first century, we are grappling with the legacies of past centuries and their cascading effects upon children and all people. We realize anew how imperialism, globalization, industrialization, and revolution continue to reshape our world and that of new generations. At a volatile moment, this collection asks how twenty-first century literature and related media represent and shape the contemporary child, childhood, and youth. Because literary representations construct ideal childhoods as well as model the rights, privileges, and respect afforded to actual young people, this collection surveys examples from popular culture and from scholarly practice. Chapters investigate the human rights of children in literature and international policy; the potential subjective agency and power of the child; the role models proposed for young people; the diverse identities children embody and encounter; and the environmental well-being of future human and nonhuman generations. As a snapshot of our developing historical moment, this collection identifies emergent trends, considers theories and critiques of childhood and literature, and observes how new technologies and paradigms are destabilizing past conventions of storytelling and lived experience.

Learning from Picturebooks

Learning from Picturebooks PDF Author: Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317961536
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 232

Get Book

Book Description
Picturebooks, understood as a series of meaningful text-picture relations, are increasingly acknowledged as an autonomous sub-genre of children’s literature. Being highly complex aesthetic products, their use is deeply embedded in specific situations of joint attention between a caregiver and a child. This volume focuses on the question of what children may learn from looking at picturebooks, whether printed in a book format, created in a digital format, or self-produced by educationalists and researchers. Interest in the relationship between cognitive processes and children’s literature is growing rapidly, and in this book, theoretical frameworks such as cognitive linguistics, cognitive narratology, cognitive poetics, and cognitive psychology, have been applied to the analysis of children’s literature. Chapters gather empirical research from the fields of literary studies, linguistics and cognitive psychology together for the first time to build a cohesive understanding of how picturebooks assist learning and development. International contributions explore: language acquisition the child’s cognitive development emotional development literary acquisition ("literary literacy") visual literacy. Divided into three parts considering symbol-based learning, co-constructed learning, and learning language skills, this cross-disciplinary volume will appeal to researchers, students and professionals engaged in children’s literature and literacy studies, as well as those from the fields of cognitive and developmental psychology, linguistics, and education.

Fractures and Disruptions in Children's Literature

Fractures and Disruptions in Children's Literature PDF Author: Maria Teresa Cortez
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527504263
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 309

Get Book

Book Description
In March 2015, the eleventh edition of The Child and the Book Conference was organized at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. The conference was related to the theme of fracture and disruption in children’s and young adult literature. This publication provides not only a synthesis of the main reflections, but also a starting point for understanding the issues of fracture and disruption within children’s and young adult literature. The volume gathers texts from consolidated figures within the field of research in Children’s Literature, as well as contributions from junior researchers, creating bridges and dialogue between both generations and critical and theoretical approaches. It includes chapters on violence, war, sexuality and politics, discussion around formal-stylistic perspectives, analysis of fringe works and hybrid literary forms as well as the issue of audience and the crossover universe. Special reference should be given to the inclusion of contributions from lesser-known countries and literatures such as Brazil, Italy, Norway, Poland, and Portugal. The volume will be of interest to children’s literature specialists, graduate and post-graduate students, librarians, and mediators of reading.

No Kids Allowed

No Kids Allowed PDF Author: Michelle Ann Abate
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421438879
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 248

Get Book

Book Description
Abate examines how board books, coloring books, bedtime stories, and series detective fiction written and published specifically for adults question the boundaries of genre and challenge the assumption that adulthood and childhood are mutually exclusive.

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks PDF Author: Janet Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317631609
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 357

View

Book Description
It is often assumed that picturebooks are for very young readers because of their emphasis on the illustrations and their scarcity of text; however, there are increasing numbers of picturebooks where the age of the implied reader is questionable. These are picturebooks whose controversial subject matter and unconventional, often unsettling style of illustration challenge the reader, pushing them to question and probe deeper to understand what the book is about. In addition to the book challenging the reader, the reader often challenges the book in an attempt to understand what is being said. These increasingly popular picturebooks work on many different levels; they are truly polysemic and worthy of in-depth analysis. They push the reader to ask questions and in many instances are intrinsically philosophical, often dealing with fundamental life issues. Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks examines these unconventional, non-conformist picturebooks, considering what they are, their audience and their purpose. It also considers: Children’s and adults’ thoughts on these kinds of picturebooks. How challenging and unsettling wordless picturebooks can play with the mind and promote philosophical thought. What creates non-conformity and strangeness ... is it the illustrations and their style, the subject matter or a combination of both? Why certain countries create, promote and accept these picturebooks more than others. Why certain picturebooks are censored and what factors are in play when these decisions are made. The role of publishers in translating and publishing these picturebooks. Children’s creative and critical responses to strange, unsettling and often disturbing visual texts. This inspiring and thought-provoking volume explores the work of a number of highly respected, international picturebook experts and includes an exclusive interview with the legendary Klaus Flugge, Managing Director of Andersen Press, one of the few remaining independent children’s book publishers in England. It is an indispensable reference for all interested in or working with picturebooks, including researchers, students in higher and teacher education, English advisors/inspectors, literacy consultants and classroom teachers.

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks PDF Author: Janet Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317631595
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 356

View

Book Description
It is often assumed that picturebooks are for very young readers because of their emphasis on the illustrations and their scarcity of text; however, there are increasing numbers of picturebooks where the age of the implied reader is questionable. These are picturebooks whose controversial subject matter and unconventional, often unsettling style of illustration challenge the reader, pushing them to question and probe deeper to understand what the book is about. In addition to the book challenging the reader, the reader often challenges the book in an attempt to understand what is being said. These increasingly popular picturebooks work on many different levels; they are truly polysemic and worthy of in-depth analysis. They push the reader to ask questions and in many instances are intrinsically philosophical, often dealing with fundamental life issues. Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks examines these unconventional, non-conformist picturebooks, considering what they are, their audience and their purpose. It also considers: Children’s and adults’ thoughts on these kinds of picturebooks. How challenging and unsettling wordless picturebooks can play with the mind and promote philosophical thought. What creates non-conformity and strangeness ... is it the illustrations and their style, the subject matter or a combination of both? Why certain countries create, promote and accept these picturebooks more than others. Why certain picturebooks are censored and what factors are in play when these decisions are made. The role of publishers in translating and publishing these picturebooks. Children’s creative and critical responses to strange, unsettling and often disturbing visual texts. This inspiring and thought-provoking volume explores the work of a number of highly respected, international picturebook experts and includes an exclusive interview with the legendary Klaus Flugge, Managing Director of Andersen Press, one of the few remaining independent children’s book publishers in England. It is an indispensable reference for all interested in or working with picturebooks, including researchers, students in higher and teacher education, English advisors/inspectors, literacy consultants and classroom teachers.

Exploring Challenging Picturebooks in Education

Exploring Challenging Picturebooks in Education PDF Author: Åse Marie Ommundsen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000413748
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 344

View

Book Description
What should children and students read? This volume explores challenging picturebooks as learning materials in early childhood education, primary and secondary school, and even universities. It addresses a wide range of thematic, cognitive, and aesthetic challenges and educational affordances of picturebooks in various languages and from different countries. Written by leading and emerging scholars in the field of picturebook studies and literacy research, the book discusses the impact of challenging picturebooks in a comprehensive manner and combines theoretical considerations, picturebook analyses, and empirical studies with children and students. It introduces stimulating picturebooks from all continents and how they are used or may be used in educational settings and contexts. The chapters touch on subjects like reading promotion, second-language acquisition, art education, interdisciplinary learning, empathy development, minority issues, and intercultural competence. Moreover, they consider relevant aspects of the educational environments, such as the inclusion of picturebooks in the curriculum, the significance of school libraries, and the impact of publishers. Exploring Challenging Picturebooks in Education sheds new light on the multiple dimensions relevant to investigating the impact of picturebooks on learning processes and the development of multimodal literacy competencies. It thus makes a significant contribution to the growing area of picturebook research and will be key reading for educators, researchers, and post-graduate students in the field of literacy studies, children’s literature, and education research.

Children Reading Picturebooks

Children Reading Picturebooks PDF Author: Evelyn Arizpe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317407601
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 238

View

Book Description
Children Reading Pictures has made a huge impact on teachers, scholars and students all over the world. The original edition of this book described the fascinating range of children's responses to contemporary picturebooks, which proved that they are sophisticated readers of visual texts and are able to make sense of complex images on literal, visual and metaphorical levels. Through this research, the authors found that children are able to understand different viewpoints, analyse moods, messages and emotions, and articulate personal responses to picture books - even when they struggle with the written word. The study of picturebooks and children’s responses to them has increased dramatically in the 12 years since the first edition was published. Fully revised with a review of the most recent theories and critical work related to picturebooks and meaning-making, this new edition demonstrates how vital visual literacy is to children's understanding and development. The second edition: Includes three new case studies that address social issues, special needs and metafiction Summarises key finding from research with culturally diverse children Draws upon new research on response to digital picturebooks Provides guidelines for those contemplating research on response to picturebooks This book is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of children’s literature as well as providing important reading for Primary and Early Years teachers, literacy co-ordinators and all those interested in picturebooks.

Picturebooks: Representation and Narration

Picturebooks: Representation and Narration PDF Author: Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136670777
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 258

View

Book Description
This volume discusses the aesthetic and cognitive challenges of modern picturebooks from different countries, such as Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and USA. The overarching issue concerns the mutual relationship between representation and narration by means of the picturebooks’ multimodal character. Moreover, this volume includes the main lines of debate and approaches to picturebooks by international leading researchers in the field. Topics covered are the impact of paratexts and interpictorial allusions, the relationship between artists’ books, crossover picturebooks, and picturebooks for adults, the narrative defiance of wordless picturebooks, the representation of emotions in images and text, and the depiction of hybrid characters in picturebooks. The enlargement of the picturebook corpus beyond an Anglo-American picturebook canon opens up new horizons and highlights the diverging styles and genre shifts in modern picturebooks. This tendency also demonstrates the influence of specific authors and illustrators on the appreciation of the picturebook genre, as in the case of Astrid Lindgren’s picturebooks and the picturebooks created by renowned illustrators, such as Anthony Browne, Wolf Erlbruch, Stian Hole, and Bruno Munari. This book will be the definite contribution to contemporary picturebook research for many years to come.

The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks

The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks PDF Author: Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317526597
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 526

View

Book Description
Containing forty-eight chapters, The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks is the ultimate guide to picturebooks. It contains a detailed introduction, surveying the history and development of the field and emphasizing the international and cultural diversity of picturebooks. Divided into five key parts, this volume covers: Concepts and topics – from hybridity and ideology to metafiction and emotions; Genres – from baby books through to picturebooks for adults; Interfaces – their relations to other forms such as comics and visual media; Domains and theoretical approaches, including developmental psychology and cognitive studies; Adaptations. With ground-breaking contributions from leading and emerging scholars alike, this comprehensive volume is one of the first to focus solely on picturebook research. Its interdisciplinary approach makes it key for both scholars and students of literature, as well as education and media.

Literary Cultures and Twenty-First-Century Childhoods

Literary Cultures and Twenty-First-Century Childhoods PDF Author: Nathalie op de Beeck
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030321460
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 279

View

Book Description
In the early decades of the twenty-first century, we are grappling with the legacies of past centuries and their cascading effects upon children and all people. We realize anew how imperialism, globalization, industrialization, and revolution continue to reshape our world and that of new generations. At a volatile moment, this collection asks how twenty-first century literature and related media represent and shape the contemporary child, childhood, and youth. Because literary representations construct ideal childhoods as well as model the rights, privileges, and respect afforded to actual young people, this collection surveys examples from popular culture and from scholarly practice. Chapters investigate the human rights of children in literature and international policy; the potential subjective agency and power of the child; the role models proposed for young people; the diverse identities children embody and encounter; and the environmental well-being of future human and nonhuman generations. As a snapshot of our developing historical moment, this collection identifies emergent trends, considers theories and critiques of childhood and literature, and observes how new technologies and paradigms are destabilizing past conventions of storytelling and lived experience.

Learning from Picturebooks

Learning from Picturebooks PDF Author: Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317961536
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 232

View

Book Description
Picturebooks, understood as a series of meaningful text-picture relations, are increasingly acknowledged as an autonomous sub-genre of children’s literature. Being highly complex aesthetic products, their use is deeply embedded in specific situations of joint attention between a caregiver and a child. This volume focuses on the question of what children may learn from looking at picturebooks, whether printed in a book format, created in a digital format, or self-produced by educationalists and researchers. Interest in the relationship between cognitive processes and children’s literature is growing rapidly, and in this book, theoretical frameworks such as cognitive linguistics, cognitive narratology, cognitive poetics, and cognitive psychology, have been applied to the analysis of children’s literature. Chapters gather empirical research from the fields of literary studies, linguistics and cognitive psychology together for the first time to build a cohesive understanding of how picturebooks assist learning and development. International contributions explore: language acquisition the child’s cognitive development emotional development literary acquisition ("literary literacy") visual literacy. Divided into three parts considering symbol-based learning, co-constructed learning, and learning language skills, this cross-disciplinary volume will appeal to researchers, students and professionals engaged in children’s literature and literacy studies, as well as those from the fields of cognitive and developmental psychology, linguistics, and education.

Fractures and Disruptions in Children's Literature

Fractures and Disruptions in Children's Literature PDF Author: Maria Teresa Cortez
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527504263
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 309

View

Book Description
In March 2015, the eleventh edition of The Child and the Book Conference was organized at the University of Aveiro in Portugal. The conference was related to the theme of fracture and disruption in children’s and young adult literature. This publication provides not only a synthesis of the main reflections, but also a starting point for understanding the issues of fracture and disruption within children’s and young adult literature. The volume gathers texts from consolidated figures within the field of research in Children’s Literature, as well as contributions from junior researchers, creating bridges and dialogue between both generations and critical and theoretical approaches. It includes chapters on violence, war, sexuality and politics, discussion around formal-stylistic perspectives, analysis of fringe works and hybrid literary forms as well as the issue of audience and the crossover universe. Special reference should be given to the inclusion of contributions from lesser-known countries and literatures such as Brazil, Italy, Norway, Poland, and Portugal. The volume will be of interest to children’s literature specialists, graduate and post-graduate students, librarians, and mediators of reading.

No Kids Allowed

No Kids Allowed PDF Author: Michelle Ann Abate
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421438879
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 248

View

Book Description
Abate examines how board books, coloring books, bedtime stories, and series detective fiction written and published specifically for adults question the boundaries of genre and challenge the assumption that adulthood and childhood are mutually exclusive.