Cheating Monkeys and Citizen Bees

Cheating Monkeys and Citizen Bees PDF Author: Lee Alan Dugatkin
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674001671
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 228

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Book Description
Here biologist Lee Dugatkin outlines four paths to cooperation shared by humans and other animals: family dynamics, reciprocal transactions (or "tit for tat"), so-called selfish teamwork, and group altruism. He draws on a wealth of examples—from babysitting among mongooses and food sharing among vampire bats to cooperation in Hutterite communities and on kibbutzim—o show not only that cooperation exists throughout the animal kingdom, but how an understanding of the natural history of altruism might foster our own best instincts toward our fellow humans.

A Keeper of Bees

A Keeper of Bees PDF Author: Allison Wallace
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 0307430413
Category : Biography & Autobiography
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
I was hooked. Call it adrenaline surge, call it honeybee venom in my veins–whatever the explanation, henceforth I would need these funky little critters in my life. Givers of sweet, thick honey, bringers forth of the fruits from trees and bushes and who knew what else, they also gave more food for thought than a body could know what to do with. –from A Keeper of Bees Allison Wallace’s devotion to honeybees and their amazing, intensely lived lives started years ago, when she was living in a cabin in the North Carolina woods. Ever since then, wherever she has called home, Wallace has kept company with bees. Now she gives us the honeybee in all its glory, dancing “the great, never fully knowable ecological dance,” striving like other creatures and plants to be all it can be in its short life. With a philosopher’s perception and a scientist’s knowledge, Wallace interweaves the facts of honeybee biology with reflections on desire, intimacy, work, evolution, memory, and home. She shares the thrill of intimately observing thousands of busy bees cozily ensconced in their brilliantly designed, perfectly weatherproofed hive. She muses on the female workers’ unceasing activity, and on the male drones’ idleness as each awaits his acrobatic midair mating with the queen, followed by his instant death. She marvels at the cosseted queen, upon whom the future of the hive depends.

The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology PDF Author: James Trefil
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113675363X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 554

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Book Description
Edited by acclaimed science writer and physicist James Trefil, the Encyclopedia's 1000 entries combine in-depth coverage with a vivid graphic format to bring every facet of science, technology, and medicine into stunning focus. From absolute zero to the Mesozoic era to semiconductors to the twin paradox, Trefil and his co-authors have an uncanny ability to convey how the universe works and to show readers how to apply that knowledge to everyday problems.

The Macaque Connection

The Macaque Connection PDF Author: Sindhu Radhakrishna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461439671
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
The concept of this book arises from a symposium entitled “Human-Macaque Interactions: Traditional and Modern Perspectives on Cooperation and Conflict ” organized at the 23rd Congress of the International Primatological Society, that was held in Kyoto in September 2010. The symposium highlighted the many aspects of human-macaque relations and some of the participants were invited to contribute to this volume. The volume will include about 11 chapters by a variety of international authors and some excerpts from published literature that illustrate cultural notions of macaques. Contributions from invited authors will engage with four main perspectives – traditional views of macaques, cooperative relationships between humans and macaques, current scenarios of human-macaque conflict, and how living with and beside humans has affected macaques. Authors will address these concerns through their research findings and reviews of their work on the Asian, and the lone African, macaques. ​

Following the Rules

Following the Rules PDF Author: Joseph Heath
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199708277
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
For centuries, philosophers have been puzzled by the fact that people often respect moral obligations as a matter of principle, setting aside considerations of self-interest. In more recent years, social scientists have been puzzled by the more general phenomenon of rule-following, the fact that people often abide by social norms even when doing so produces undesirable consequences. Experimental game theorists have demonstrated conclusively that the old-fashioned picture of "economic man," constantly reoptimizing in order to maximize utility in all circumstances, cannot provide adequate foundations for a general theory of rational action. The dominant response, however, has been a slide toward irrationalism. If people are ignoring the consequences of their actions, it is claimed, it must be because they are making some sort of a mistake. In Following the Rules, Joseph Heath attempts to reverse this trend, by showing how rule-following can be understood as an essential element of rational action. The first step involves showing how rational choice theory can be modified to incorporate deontic constraint as a feature of rational deliberation. The second involves disarming the suspicion that there is something mysterious or irrational about the psychological states underlying rule-following. According to Heath, human rationality is a by-product of the so-called "language upgrade" that we receive as a consequence of the development of specific social practices. As a result, certain constitutive features of our social environment-such as the rule-governed structure of social life-migrate inwards, and become constitutive features of our psychological faculties. This in turn explains why there is an indissoluble bond between practical rationality and deontic constraint. In the end, what Heath offers is a naturalistic, evolutionary argument in favor of the traditional Kantian view that there is an internal connection between being a rational agent and feeling the force of one's moral obligations.

The Imitation Factor

The Imitation Factor PDF Author: Lee Alan Dugatkin
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0684864533
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 268

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Book Description
A biologist and science journalist focuses on imitation as a key evolutionary strategy, revealing "animal education" as a universal phenomena.

The Origins and Nature of Sociality

The Origins and Nature of Sociality PDF Author: Robert W. Sussman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351477889
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
Scientific developments have increasingly been transforming our understanding of the place of human beings in nature. The contributors to this book focus on the current status of research on sociality and the evolution of cooperative and altruistic behaviour in non-human and human primates. They examine questions related to the evolution, cultural viability, and hormonal underpinnings of human sociality in specific detail, and describe patterns of sociality that shed light on human social behaviour.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology PDF Author: Leonie Huddy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199760101
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 1005

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Book Description
A revised version of this essential interdisciplinary handbook.

Animal Rights

Animal Rights PDF Author: John M. Kistler
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313312311
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 227

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Book Description
Presents an introduction to the subject, suggestions on searching the Internet, and a bibliography of literature on animal nature, fatal and nonfatal uses, animal populations, and animal speculations.

Human Characteristics

Human Characteristics PDF Author: Preben Bertelsen
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443804754
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 450

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Book Description
Every once in a while, we have to reconsider the perennial questions concerning human nature: What are the special human behaviours, social practices, and psychological structures that make us particularly human? The field of evolution, psychology and cognitive science is the most expanding, inter-disciplinary area of this field for the time being, uniting different sciences under the same evolutionary paradigm and keeping them occupied by the same eternal questions stated above. Relevant data and theoretical considerations are piling up, but an overview is needed. To facilitate this a large inter-disciplinary conference entitled “Human Mind—Human Kind” was held at Aarhus University, Denmark. The studies fall into three well defined sections: 1) Evolution and Cognition—Comparative and Developmental Perspectives, 2) Human Sociality, Morality and Religiosity, 3) Human Sexuality and Mating Strategies. Specifying the differences between our own species and the rest of the animal world always provokes debate. But these demarcations simply have to be drawn once and again. They focus attention and stimulate research, exactly because they provoke and challenge other researchers to take up the glove and prove us wrong.