Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars

Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars PDF Author: Rafael Rodrigo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789402420128
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 418

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Book Description
From the Earth's atmosphere to the edges of our Universe, the presence of dust is ubiquitous. One of the main challenges in studying dust in these various environments is thus to harmonize the diverse research techniques and results, including in-situ measurement, remote observation, laboratory experiments and modelling, and analysis of returned samples. For the first time in over a decade, this volume accomplishes exactly that, providing an overarching picture of the current state of dust science and research. Where possible, the papers in this volume emphasize the interconnections, similarities, and differences in the field, synthesizing results from several techniques into one cohesive view. Importantly, astrobiological connections have now been considered. The dust hazard, future technology and research, and space mission requirements and scenarios are also addressed. The outcome of this endeavor is an interdisciplinary compendium with a unified perspective on cosmic dust science. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars"

Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy

Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy PDF Author: T.J Millar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351454463
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 336

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Book Description
Dust is widespread in the galaxy. To astronomers studying stars it may be just an irritating fog, but it is becoming widely recognized that cosmic dust plays an active role in astrochemistry. Without dust, the galaxy would have evolved differently, and planetary systems like ours would not have occurred. To explore and consolidate this active area of research, Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy covers the role of dust in the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium, with the exception of dust in the solar system. Each chapter provides thorough coverage of our understanding of interstellar dust, particularly its interaction with interstellar gas. Aimed at postgraduate researchers, the book also serves as a thorough review of this significant area of astrophysics for practicing astronomers and graduate students.

Experiments on Cosmic Dust Analogues

Experiments on Cosmic Dust Analogues PDF Author: E. Bussoletti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940093033X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
Astrophysical analysis relating to solid matter requires data on properties and processes. Such data, however, expecially appropriate to space conditions are mostly lacking. It appeared then very tempting to gather together experimentalists, ob servers and theoreticians working in the field of cosmic dust and in related areas. The Workshop held in Capri (Italy) from September 8th till 12th 1987 gave the participants a unique opportunity for exchange of ideas and discussions of problems and experimental procedures. Introductory reports were prepared with the aim of giving the state of the art about single subjects; contributed poster papers presented, on the contrary, very recent results in the various fields. According to his specific interest each attendant has also contributed to three Working Groups respectively on a) carbon, b) silicates, c) ice and related topics. Scientifical and technical problems about these items were discussed in great detail. Though no definite answers were given, useful indications come out which will be of some help for future works. In addition to the scientific efforts, the Capodimonte Observatory and the Istituto Universitario Navale sought to give a warm welcome to the participants. Thanks to several sponsors, the LOC could organize some excursions and shows to entertain people during their spare time.

Optics of Cosmic Dust

Optics of Cosmic Dust PDF Author: Gorden Videen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401006288
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 320

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Book Description
Optics of Cosmic Dust describes what we currently know about cosmic dust, how we know it, and the research efforts undertaken to provide that knowledge. Areas treated include observational information, dust morphology and chemistry, light-scattering models, characterisation methodologies, and backscatter polarisation and dynamics. Suitable as an introductory text, the book is also a reference guide for the advanced researcher.

Astromineralogy

Astromineralogy PDF Author: Thomas Henning
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642132588
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 329

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Book Description
Astromineralogy deals with the science of gathering mineralogical information from the astronomical spectroscopy of asteroids, comets and dust in the circumstellar environments in general. This field has received a tremendous boost with the reliable identification of minerals by the Infrared Space Observatory. The first edition of this book, published in 2003, was the first comprehensive and coherent account of this exciting field. Data obtained in the meantime with the Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope, the stardust mission to the comet 81P / Wild 2, and with the Cassini mission, together with progress in ground-based observations and laboratory astrophysics form the basis for this updated and widely extended second edition.Beyond addressing the specialist in the field, the book is intended as a high-level but readable introduction to astromineralogy for both the nonspecialist researcher and the advanced student.

The Cosmic Dust Connection

The Cosmic Dust Connection PDF Author: J. Mayo Greenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401156522
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 545

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Book Description
Solid particles are followed from their creation through their evolution in the Galaxy to their participation in the formation of solar systems like our own, these being now clearly deduced from observations by the Hubble Space Telescope as well as by IR and visual observations of protostellar disks, like that of the famous Beta Pictoris object. The most recent observational, laboratory and theoretical methods are examined in detail. In our own solar system, studies of meteorites, comets and comet dust reveal many features that follow directly from the interstellar dust from which they formed. The properties of interstellar dust provide possible keys to its origin in comets and asteroids and its ultimate origin in the early solar system. But this is a continuing story: what happens to the solid particles in space after they emerge from stellar sources has important scientific consequences since it ultimately bears on our own origins - the origins of solar systems and, especially, of our own earth and life in the universe.

The Role of Dust in the Formation of Stars

The Role of Dust in the Formation of Stars PDF Author: Hans U. Käufl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540685944
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 461

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Book Description
This ESO workshop, which took place in September 1995 on a topic that at a first glance could be considered rather specialized, attracted an unpre dictably large number of scientists. This certainly reflects the importance of this field, which has lost its seemingly esoteric character, in a wider astro physical context. To give as much room as possible in these proceedings to the targeted talks, no presentation of the Very Large Telescope Observatory has been included. All readers missing such a presentation are reminded that up-to date in-depth information about the VLT status is available electronically.1 Papers were given concerning observations in the entire electromagnetic spectrum from x-rays to mm-waves, i.e., exceeding 22 octaves in frequency. The VLT as any ground-based optical observatory can only address at best 7 octaves. Nevertheless the VLT, most likely the only ground-based observa tory specifically designed to access all these 7 octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum practically in parallel, will undoubtedly be a tool of extreme value to this field.

Handbook of Nanophysics

Handbook of Nanophysics PDF Author: Klaus D. Sattler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420075458
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 716

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Book Description
In the 1990s, nanoparticles and quantum dots began to be used in optical, electronic, and biological applications. Now they are being studied for use in solid-state quantum computation, tumor imaging, and photovoltaics. Handbook of Nanophysics: Nanoparticles and Quantum Dots focuses on the fundamental physics of these nanoscale materials and structures. Each peer-reviewed chapter contains a broad-based introduction and enhances understanding of the state-of-the-art scientific content through fundamental equations and illustrations, some in color. This volume provides an overview of the major categories of nanoparticles, including amorphous, magnetic, ferroelectric, and zinc oxide nanoparticles; helium nanodroplets; and silicon, tetrapod-shaped semiconductor, magnetic ion-doped semiconductor, and natural polysaccharide nanocrystals. It also describes their properties and interactions. In the group of chapters on nanofluids, the expert contributors discuss the stability of nanodispersions, liquid slip at the molecular scale, thermophysical properties, and heat transfer. They go on to examine the theory, self-assembly, and teleportation of quantum dots. Nanophysics brings together multiple disciplines to determine the structural, electronic, optical, and thermal behavior of nanomaterials; electrical and thermal conductivity; the forces between nanoscale objects; and the transition between classical and quantum behavior. Facilitating communication across many disciplines, this landmark publication encourages scientists with disparate interests to collaborate on interdisciplinary projects and incorporate the theory and methodology of other areas into their work.

Stardust from Meteorites

Stardust from Meteorites PDF Author: Maria Lugaro
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812560998
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 209

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Book Description
- The first book specifically dedicated to the 20-year-old study of presolar stellar grains - Contains basic background material together with the most recent discoveries - Presents a simple but comprehensive description of the latest stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis theories - Quotes most of the relevant bibliography related to stellar grains and hence can be used as a source of reference

Formation and Evolution of Solids in Space

Formation and Evolution of Solids in Space PDF Author: J. Mayo Greenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401148066
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 598

Get Book

Book Description
Interstellar dust, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDP's), the zodiacal light, comets, comet dust. Where do they come from, what are they made of, how do they evolve, and finally, are there connections between them? These are the questions discussed in this volume by some of the world's outstanding experts in their respective fields. The techniques used for studying the `small' solid objects of space are thoroughly discussed. Some of the methods involve a synthetic approach using the laboratory to create analog environments and materials which are believed to resemble those in space. Others use direct laboratory methods with state-of-the-art analytical tools to study the material of the objects themselves - meteorites, IDP'S. And others apply the latest in astronomical facilities to provide quantitative data on the material properties of the solids which can only be deduced from remote observations, These are compared with the laboratory results. In one instance there was a possibility to study a solar system body in situ and that was the case of comet Halley and some of the results of these studies obtained from space `laboratories' launched to meet it are discussed here. Finally, there are theoretical papers which are aimed at bridging the results of observational and laboratory methods. This book is recommended to senior scientists as well as graduate students who wish to pursue research in interstellar and solar system astronomy and their connections.

Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars

Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars PDF Author: Rafael Rodrigo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789402420128
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 418

View

Book Description
From the Earth's atmosphere to the edges of our Universe, the presence of dust is ubiquitous. One of the main challenges in studying dust in these various environments is thus to harmonize the diverse research techniques and results, including in-situ measurement, remote observation, laboratory experiments and modelling, and analysis of returned samples. For the first time in over a decade, this volume accomplishes exactly that, providing an overarching picture of the current state of dust science and research. Where possible, the papers in this volume emphasize the interconnections, similarities, and differences in the field, synthesizing results from several techniques into one cohesive view. Importantly, astrobiological connections have now been considered. The dust hazard, future technology and research, and space mission requirements and scenarios are also addressed. The outcome of this endeavor is an interdisciplinary compendium with a unified perspective on cosmic dust science. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars"

Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy

Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy PDF Author: T.J Millar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351454463
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 336

View

Book Description
Dust is widespread in the galaxy. To astronomers studying stars it may be just an irritating fog, but it is becoming widely recognized that cosmic dust plays an active role in astrochemistry. Without dust, the galaxy would have evolved differently, and planetary systems like ours would not have occurred. To explore and consolidate this active area of research, Dust and Chemistry in Astronomy covers the role of dust in the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium, with the exception of dust in the solar system. Each chapter provides thorough coverage of our understanding of interstellar dust, particularly its interaction with interstellar gas. Aimed at postgraduate researchers, the book also serves as a thorough review of this significant area of astrophysics for practicing astronomers and graduate students.

Experiments on Cosmic Dust Analogues

Experiments on Cosmic Dust Analogues PDF Author: E. Bussoletti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940093033X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 384

View

Book Description
Astrophysical analysis relating to solid matter requires data on properties and processes. Such data, however, expecially appropriate to space conditions are mostly lacking. It appeared then very tempting to gather together experimentalists, ob servers and theoreticians working in the field of cosmic dust and in related areas. The Workshop held in Capri (Italy) from September 8th till 12th 1987 gave the participants a unique opportunity for exchange of ideas and discussions of problems and experimental procedures. Introductory reports were prepared with the aim of giving the state of the art about single subjects; contributed poster papers presented, on the contrary, very recent results in the various fields. According to his specific interest each attendant has also contributed to three Working Groups respectively on a) carbon, b) silicates, c) ice and related topics. Scientifical and technical problems about these items were discussed in great detail. Though no definite answers were given, useful indications come out which will be of some help for future works. In addition to the scientific efforts, the Capodimonte Observatory and the Istituto Universitario Navale sought to give a warm welcome to the participants. Thanks to several sponsors, the LOC could organize some excursions and shows to entertain people during their spare time.

Optics of Cosmic Dust

Optics of Cosmic Dust PDF Author: Gorden Videen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401006288
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 320

View

Book Description
Optics of Cosmic Dust describes what we currently know about cosmic dust, how we know it, and the research efforts undertaken to provide that knowledge. Areas treated include observational information, dust morphology and chemistry, light-scattering models, characterisation methodologies, and backscatter polarisation and dynamics. Suitable as an introductory text, the book is also a reference guide for the advanced researcher.

Astromineralogy

Astromineralogy PDF Author: Thomas Henning
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642132588
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 329

View

Book Description
Astromineralogy deals with the science of gathering mineralogical information from the astronomical spectroscopy of asteroids, comets and dust in the circumstellar environments in general. This field has received a tremendous boost with the reliable identification of minerals by the Infrared Space Observatory. The first edition of this book, published in 2003, was the first comprehensive and coherent account of this exciting field. Data obtained in the meantime with the Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope, the stardust mission to the comet 81P / Wild 2, and with the Cassini mission, together with progress in ground-based observations and laboratory astrophysics form the basis for this updated and widely extended second edition.Beyond addressing the specialist in the field, the book is intended as a high-level but readable introduction to astromineralogy for both the nonspecialist researcher and the advanced student.

The Cosmic Dust Connection

The Cosmic Dust Connection PDF Author: J. Mayo Greenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401156522
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 545

View

Book Description
Solid particles are followed from their creation through their evolution in the Galaxy to their participation in the formation of solar systems like our own, these being now clearly deduced from observations by the Hubble Space Telescope as well as by IR and visual observations of protostellar disks, like that of the famous Beta Pictoris object. The most recent observational, laboratory and theoretical methods are examined in detail. In our own solar system, studies of meteorites, comets and comet dust reveal many features that follow directly from the interstellar dust from which they formed. The properties of interstellar dust provide possible keys to its origin in comets and asteroids and its ultimate origin in the early solar system. But this is a continuing story: what happens to the solid particles in space after they emerge from stellar sources has important scientific consequences since it ultimately bears on our own origins - the origins of solar systems and, especially, of our own earth and life in the universe.

The Role of Dust in the Formation of Stars

The Role of Dust in the Formation of Stars PDF Author: Hans U. Käufl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540685944
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 461

View

Book Description
This ESO workshop, which took place in September 1995 on a topic that at a first glance could be considered rather specialized, attracted an unpre dictably large number of scientists. This certainly reflects the importance of this field, which has lost its seemingly esoteric character, in a wider astro physical context. To give as much room as possible in these proceedings to the targeted talks, no presentation of the Very Large Telescope Observatory has been included. All readers missing such a presentation are reminded that up-to date in-depth information about the VLT status is available electronically.1 Papers were given concerning observations in the entire electromagnetic spectrum from x-rays to mm-waves, i.e., exceeding 22 octaves in frequency. The VLT as any ground-based optical observatory can only address at best 7 octaves. Nevertheless the VLT, most likely the only ground-based observa tory specifically designed to access all these 7 octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum practically in parallel, will undoubtedly be a tool of extreme value to this field.

Handbook of Nanophysics

Handbook of Nanophysics PDF Author: Klaus D. Sattler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420075458
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 716

View

Book Description
In the 1990s, nanoparticles and quantum dots began to be used in optical, electronic, and biological applications. Now they are being studied for use in solid-state quantum computation, tumor imaging, and photovoltaics. Handbook of Nanophysics: Nanoparticles and Quantum Dots focuses on the fundamental physics of these nanoscale materials and structures. Each peer-reviewed chapter contains a broad-based introduction and enhances understanding of the state-of-the-art scientific content through fundamental equations and illustrations, some in color. This volume provides an overview of the major categories of nanoparticles, including amorphous, magnetic, ferroelectric, and zinc oxide nanoparticles; helium nanodroplets; and silicon, tetrapod-shaped semiconductor, magnetic ion-doped semiconductor, and natural polysaccharide nanocrystals. It also describes their properties and interactions. In the group of chapters on nanofluids, the expert contributors discuss the stability of nanodispersions, liquid slip at the molecular scale, thermophysical properties, and heat transfer. They go on to examine the theory, self-assembly, and teleportation of quantum dots. Nanophysics brings together multiple disciplines to determine the structural, electronic, optical, and thermal behavior of nanomaterials; electrical and thermal conductivity; the forces between nanoscale objects; and the transition between classical and quantum behavior. Facilitating communication across many disciplines, this landmark publication encourages scientists with disparate interests to collaborate on interdisciplinary projects and incorporate the theory and methodology of other areas into their work.

Stardust from Meteorites

Stardust from Meteorites PDF Author: Maria Lugaro
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812560998
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 209

View

Book Description
- The first book specifically dedicated to the 20-year-old study of presolar stellar grains - Contains basic background material together with the most recent discoveries - Presents a simple but comprehensive description of the latest stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis theories - Quotes most of the relevant bibliography related to stellar grains and hence can be used as a source of reference

Formation and Evolution of Solids in Space

Formation and Evolution of Solids in Space PDF Author: J. Mayo Greenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401148066
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 598

View

Book Description
Interstellar dust, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDP's), the zodiacal light, comets, comet dust. Where do they come from, what are they made of, how do they evolve, and finally, are there connections between them? These are the questions discussed in this volume by some of the world's outstanding experts in their respective fields. The techniques used for studying the `small' solid objects of space are thoroughly discussed. Some of the methods involve a synthetic approach using the laboratory to create analog environments and materials which are believed to resemble those in space. Others use direct laboratory methods with state-of-the-art analytical tools to study the material of the objects themselves - meteorites, IDP'S. And others apply the latest in astronomical facilities to provide quantitative data on the material properties of the solids which can only be deduced from remote observations, These are compared with the laboratory results. In one instance there was a possibility to study a solar system body in situ and that was the case of comet Halley and some of the results of these studies obtained from space `laboratories' launched to meet it are discussed here. Finally, there are theoretical papers which are aimed at bridging the results of observational and laboratory methods. This book is recommended to senior scientists as well as graduate students who wish to pursue research in interstellar and solar system astronomy and their connections.