Higgs, Supersymmetry and Dark Matter After Run I of the LHC

Higgs, Supersymmetry and Dark Matter After Run I of the LHC PDF Author: Béranger Dumont
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319449567
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 259

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Book Description
This work was nominated as an outstanding PhD thesis by the LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, France. The LHC Run 1 was a milestone in particle physics, leading to the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last missing piece of the so-called "Standard Model" (SM), and to important constraints on new physics, which challenge popular theories like weak-scale supersymmetry. This thesis provides a detailed account of the legacy of the LHC Run 1 ≤¥regarding these aspects. First, the SM and the need for its extension are presented in a concise yet revealing way. Subsequently, the impact of the LHC Higgs results on scenarios of new physics is assessed in detail, including a careful discussion of the relevant uncertainties. Two approaches are considered: generic modifications of the Higgs couplings, possibly arising from extended Higgs sectors or higher-dimensional operators; and tests of specific new physics models. Lastly, the implications of the null results of the searches for new physics are discussed with a particular focus on supersymmetric dark matter candidates. Here as well, two approaches are presented: the "simplified models" approach, and recasting by event simulation. This thesis stands out for its educational approach, its clear language and the depth of the physics discussion. The methods and tools presented offer readers essential practical tools for future research.

Dark Matter in the Universe

Dark Matter in the Universe PDF Author: John N. Bahcall
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812567186
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 246

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Book Description
If standard gravitational theory is correct, then most of the matterin the universe is in an unidentified form which does not emit enoughlight to have been detected by current instrumentation. This book isthe second editon of the lectures given at the 4th Jerusalem WinterSchool for Theoretical Physics, with new material added. The lecturesare devoted to the missing matter problem in the universe, thesearch to understand dark matter. The goal of this volume is to makecurrent research work on unseen matter accessible to students withoutprior experience in this area and to provide insights for experts inrelated research fields. Due to the pedagogical nature of the originallectures and the intense discussions between the lecturers and thestudents, the written lectures included in this volume often containtechniques and explanations not found in more formal journalpublications.

What Is Dark Matter?

What Is Dark Matter? PDF Author: Peter Fisher
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691185913
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description
What we know about dark matter and what we have yet to discover Astronomical observations have confirmed dark matter’s existence, but what exactly is dark matter? In What Is Dark Matter?, particle physicist Peter Fisher introduces readers to one of the most intriguing frontiers of physics. We cannot actually see dark matter, a mysterious, nonluminous form of matter that is believed to account for about 27 percent of the mass-energy balance in the universe. But we know dark matter is present by observing its ghostly gravitational effects on the behavior and evolution of galaxies. Fisher brings readers quickly up to speed regarding the current state of the dark matter problem, offering relevant historical context as well as a close look at the cutting-edge research focused on revealing dark matter’s true nature. Could dark matter be a new type of particle—an axion or a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP)—or something else? What have physicists ruled out so far—and why? What experimental searches are now underway and planned for the near future, in hopes of detecting dark matter on Earth or in space? Fisher explores these questions and more, illuminating what is known and unknown, and what a triumph it will be when scientists discover dark matter’s identity at last.

Dark Matter of the Mind

Dark Matter of the Mind PDF Author: Daniel L. Everett
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022652678X
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 395

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Book Description
Is it in our nature to be altruistic, or evil, to make art, use tools, or create language? Is it in our nature to think in any particular way? For Daniel L. Everett, the answer is a resounding no: it isn’t in our nature to do any of these things because human nature does not exist—at least not as we usually think of it. Flying in the face of major trends in Evolutionary Psychology and related fields, he offers a provocative and compelling argument in this book that the only thing humans are hardwired for is freedom: freedom from evolutionary instinct and freedom to adapt to a variety of environmental and cultural contexts. Everett sketches a blank-slate picture of human cognition that focuses not on what is in the mind but, rather, what the mind is in—namely, culture. He draws on years of field research among the Amazonian people of the Pirahã in order to carefully scrutinize various theories of cognitive instinct, including Noam Chomsky’s foundational concept of universal grammar, Freud’s notions of unconscious forces, Adolf Bastian’s psychic unity of mankind, and works on massive modularity by evolutionary psychologists such as Leda Cosmides, John Tooby, Jerry Fodor, and Steven Pinker. Illuminating unique characteristics of the Pirahã language, he demonstrates just how differently various cultures can make us think and how vital culture is to our cognitive flexibility. Outlining the ways culture and individual psychology operate symbiotically, he posits a Buddhist-like conception of the cultural self as a set of experiences united by various apperceptions, episodic memories, ranked values, knowledge structures, and social roles—and not, in any shape or form, biological instinct. The result is fascinating portrait of the “dark matter of the mind,” one that shows that our greatest evolutionary adaptation is adaptability itself.

Matter, Antimatter, and Dark Matter

Matter, Antimatter, and Dark Matter PDF Author: Roberto Battiston
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981277680X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 269

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Book Description
This book presents the progress in cosmic ray physics following the recent results obtained by balloon, satellite and underground experiments. The following topics are reviewed: Composition and propagation of cosmic rays, trapping of charged particles in the earth''s magnetic field, atmospheric neutrinos, and high energy photon measurements in space.

Genomic “dark matter”: implications for understanding human disease mechanisms, diagnostics, and cures

Genomic “dark matter”: implications for understanding human disease mechanisms, diagnostics, and cures PDF Author: Philipp Kapranov
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889190536
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 106

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Book Description
The vast majority of the human genome has been historically ignored from the point of view of molecular mechanisms of disease, diagnostics and potential therapeutic targets. The predominant focus of disease research has traditionally been placed on the protein-coding regions of the human genome, which account for only ~4-5% of its total sequence complexity. This bias has an obvious underlying reason: protein-coding regions encode a crucial class of molecules in a cell, whose function and importance are well established. Furthermore, proteins are the predominant class of cellular molecules against which effective therapeutics can be designed. This bias pervades the design of analytical tools made to measure DNA, DNA-protein interactions, as well as procedures used to measure and annotate transcriptome expression. Microarrays for example, are often biased to the regions of genome known to encode exons or promoters of protein-coding mRNAs. Other aspects of our approach towards measuring expression of RNAs such as the typical choice of polyA+ RNA selection, enriched in mRNAs, for next generation sequencing also reinforces this bias. In summary, the 2-3% of the genome and RNAs made from it has dominated the conceptual thinking of academic and medical communities as well as industries that make devices that measure nucleic acids for research or diagnostic purposes and the pharmaceutical industry. However, during the last decade a tide of data has gained sufficient momentum to suggest that the cell actually uses the remaining 97-98% of the genome to produce stable RNAs – the so-called “dark matter” RNA. The first reports to suggest this were based on tiling array technology and sequencing of ESTs, which while powerful, had their limitations: tiling arrays could not estimate the relative mass of the RNAs produced from the non-protein coding regions in a cell and the EST sequencing methods were not deep enough. The advent of next-generation sequencing, in particular, single-molecule sequencing has allowed us not only confirm the previous observations but also for the first time to estimate not only from where, but also how much non-exonic RNA is produced. Its fraction of the total transcriptome is quite significant, up to 2/3 of all RNA made in a human cell (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/149 ). Moreover, the non-exonic RNAs are differentially expressed in disease: for example, between the primary tumors and metastatic derivatives. We believe that the logical next step from these observations is to ask three questions, perhaps some of the most important questions of our time in biomedical science: (1) do “dark matter” RNAs underlie mechanisms of human disease?; (2) Can they be used for diagnostics?; and (3) Can they be used as targets for therapeutics?. We thus would like to propose a Research Topic in the Frontiers in Genetics/Frontiers in Non-Coding RNAs that is specifically dedicated to publishing manuscripts addressing these three questions.

The Identification of Dark Matter

The Identification of Dark Matter PDF Author: Neil J C Spooner
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814480304
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 688

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Book Description
The prestigious Identification of Dark Matter workshop series was initiated to assess the status of work that attempts to identify the constitution of dark matter. In particular, it aims to review the success of current methods that are used in the search for dark matter, as well as the new techniques that are likely to improve prospects for detecting possible dark matter candidates in the future. In the 5th International Workshop, special emphasis was placed on the recent results obtained in experiments searching for baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter. This volume comprises the high-quality review articles and papers contributed by leaders and promising young physicists who attended the conference. It provides the most recent updates on dark matter searches from both experimental and theoretical points of view. The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings® (ISTP® / ISI Proceedings) • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings) • CC Proceedings — Engineering & Physical Sciences Contents:Dark Matter in the Universe — Theory and Observation:Cosmology, Large Scale Structure and Dark EnergyHalos, Halo Models and Dark MatterParticle Physics and SUSYBaryonic SearchesNon-Baryonic Searches:WIMP DetectorsAxionsUnderground LaboratoriesBackground StudiesIndirect TechniquesNeutrino Readership: Academics, lecturers, researchers and graduate students working in the areas of particle physics, particle astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Keywords:Dark Matter;Neutralino;WIMPs;Axion;Neutrino;Baryonic Dark Matter;Dark Energy;DetectorsKey Features:Contains review articles by prominent experts in the fieldFocuses on the searches for baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter

Dark Matter: Big Sky Alien Mail Order Brides #3 (Intergalactic Dating Agency)

Dark Matter: Big Sky Alien Mail Order Brides #3 (Intergalactic Dating Agency) PDF Author: Elsa Jade
Publisher: Red Circle Ink
ISBN: 1941547141
Category : Fiction
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
Dating and mating are the irrational pursuits of mortal races while the rare vrykoly species watches dispassionately from afar. But after his captain and first officer find love with the extraordinary females of Earth, this vrykoly is forced to wonder if he was—dare he say it?—wrong. Piloting the deathly cold and vast distances of space is why he was meant to exist, all he’s ever known, and even his dreams have always been black and still. Can anyone ever love a soul-sucking space vampire? They're looking for love in all the wrong galaxies... Intergalactic Dating Agency Big Sky Alien Mail Order Brides #1 ~ Alpha Star #2 ~ Red Shift #3 ~ Dark Matter

Dark Sky, Dark Matter

Dark Sky, Dark Matter PDF Author: J.M Overduin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420034510
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

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Book Description
Olbers' paradox states that given the Universe is unbounded, governed by the standard laws of physics, and populated by light sources, the night sky should be ablaze with light. Obviously this is not so. However, the paradox does not lie in nature but in our understanding of physics. A Universe with a finite age, such as follows from big-bang theor

Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs

Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs PDF Author: Lisa Randall
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1448192226
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 432

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Book Description
The most thrilling, genre-busting, unlikely science book you’ll ever read, from the world-renowned, multi-award-winning, superstar physicist Lisa Randal. 66 million years ago, a ten-mile-wide object from outer space hurtled into the Earth at incredible speed. The impact annihilated the dinosaurs, along with three-quarters of the other species on the planet. But what if this catastrophe was the sign of something greater: an opening vista onto the interconnectedness of the universe itself? This is the story of the astounding forces that underpin our existence; a horizon-expanding tour of the cosmos that unifies what we know about the universe with new thinking. From the far-flung reaches of space, the makeup of the universe and our solar system's place within it, to the mysterious and elusive stuff of dark matter and how it affects life here on Earth. ‘A fascinating, and surprisingly simple, theory...and a tantalising premise’ The Times ‘Extremely engaging’ BBC Focus

Higgs, Supersymmetry and Dark Matter After Run I of the LHC

Higgs, Supersymmetry and Dark Matter After Run I of the LHC PDF Author: Béranger Dumont
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319449567
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 259

View

Book Description
This work was nominated as an outstanding PhD thesis by the LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, France. The LHC Run 1 was a milestone in particle physics, leading to the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last missing piece of the so-called "Standard Model" (SM), and to important constraints on new physics, which challenge popular theories like weak-scale supersymmetry. This thesis provides a detailed account of the legacy of the LHC Run 1 ≤¥regarding these aspects. First, the SM and the need for its extension are presented in a concise yet revealing way. Subsequently, the impact of the LHC Higgs results on scenarios of new physics is assessed in detail, including a careful discussion of the relevant uncertainties. Two approaches are considered: generic modifications of the Higgs couplings, possibly arising from extended Higgs sectors or higher-dimensional operators; and tests of specific new physics models. Lastly, the implications of the null results of the searches for new physics are discussed with a particular focus on supersymmetric dark matter candidates. Here as well, two approaches are presented: the "simplified models" approach, and recasting by event simulation. This thesis stands out for its educational approach, its clear language and the depth of the physics discussion. The methods and tools presented offer readers essential practical tools for future research.

Dark Matter in the Universe

Dark Matter in the Universe PDF Author: John N. Bahcall
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812567186
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 246

View

Book Description
If standard gravitational theory is correct, then most of the matterin the universe is in an unidentified form which does not emit enoughlight to have been detected by current instrumentation. This book isthe second editon of the lectures given at the 4th Jerusalem WinterSchool for Theoretical Physics, with new material added. The lecturesare devoted to the missing matter problem in the universe, thesearch to understand dark matter. The goal of this volume is to makecurrent research work on unseen matter accessible to students withoutprior experience in this area and to provide insights for experts inrelated research fields. Due to the pedagogical nature of the originallectures and the intense discussions between the lecturers and thestudents, the written lectures included in this volume often containtechniques and explanations not found in more formal journalpublications.

What Is Dark Matter?

What Is Dark Matter? PDF Author: Peter Fisher
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691185913
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 192

View

Book Description
What we know about dark matter and what we have yet to discover Astronomical observations have confirmed dark matter’s existence, but what exactly is dark matter? In What Is Dark Matter?, particle physicist Peter Fisher introduces readers to one of the most intriguing frontiers of physics. We cannot actually see dark matter, a mysterious, nonluminous form of matter that is believed to account for about 27 percent of the mass-energy balance in the universe. But we know dark matter is present by observing its ghostly gravitational effects on the behavior and evolution of galaxies. Fisher brings readers quickly up to speed regarding the current state of the dark matter problem, offering relevant historical context as well as a close look at the cutting-edge research focused on revealing dark matter’s true nature. Could dark matter be a new type of particle—an axion or a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP)—or something else? What have physicists ruled out so far—and why? What experimental searches are now underway and planned for the near future, in hopes of detecting dark matter on Earth or in space? Fisher explores these questions and more, illuminating what is known and unknown, and what a triumph it will be when scientists discover dark matter’s identity at last.

Dark Matter of the Mind

Dark Matter of the Mind PDF Author: Daniel L. Everett
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022652678X
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 395

View

Book Description
Is it in our nature to be altruistic, or evil, to make art, use tools, or create language? Is it in our nature to think in any particular way? For Daniel L. Everett, the answer is a resounding no: it isn’t in our nature to do any of these things because human nature does not exist—at least not as we usually think of it. Flying in the face of major trends in Evolutionary Psychology and related fields, he offers a provocative and compelling argument in this book that the only thing humans are hardwired for is freedom: freedom from evolutionary instinct and freedom to adapt to a variety of environmental and cultural contexts. Everett sketches a blank-slate picture of human cognition that focuses not on what is in the mind but, rather, what the mind is in—namely, culture. He draws on years of field research among the Amazonian people of the Pirahã in order to carefully scrutinize various theories of cognitive instinct, including Noam Chomsky’s foundational concept of universal grammar, Freud’s notions of unconscious forces, Adolf Bastian’s psychic unity of mankind, and works on massive modularity by evolutionary psychologists such as Leda Cosmides, John Tooby, Jerry Fodor, and Steven Pinker. Illuminating unique characteristics of the Pirahã language, he demonstrates just how differently various cultures can make us think and how vital culture is to our cognitive flexibility. Outlining the ways culture and individual psychology operate symbiotically, he posits a Buddhist-like conception of the cultural self as a set of experiences united by various apperceptions, episodic memories, ranked values, knowledge structures, and social roles—and not, in any shape or form, biological instinct. The result is fascinating portrait of the “dark matter of the mind,” one that shows that our greatest evolutionary adaptation is adaptability itself.

Matter, Antimatter, and Dark Matter

Matter, Antimatter, and Dark Matter PDF Author: Roberto Battiston
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981277680X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 269

View

Book Description
This book presents the progress in cosmic ray physics following the recent results obtained by balloon, satellite and underground experiments. The following topics are reviewed: Composition and propagation of cosmic rays, trapping of charged particles in the earth''s magnetic field, atmospheric neutrinos, and high energy photon measurements in space.

Genomic “dark matter”: implications for understanding human disease mechanisms, diagnostics, and cures

Genomic “dark matter”: implications for understanding human disease mechanisms, diagnostics, and cures PDF Author: Philipp Kapranov
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889190536
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 106

View

Book Description
The vast majority of the human genome has been historically ignored from the point of view of molecular mechanisms of disease, diagnostics and potential therapeutic targets. The predominant focus of disease research has traditionally been placed on the protein-coding regions of the human genome, which account for only ~4-5% of its total sequence complexity. This bias has an obvious underlying reason: protein-coding regions encode a crucial class of molecules in a cell, whose function and importance are well established. Furthermore, proteins are the predominant class of cellular molecules against which effective therapeutics can be designed. This bias pervades the design of analytical tools made to measure DNA, DNA-protein interactions, as well as procedures used to measure and annotate transcriptome expression. Microarrays for example, are often biased to the regions of genome known to encode exons or promoters of protein-coding mRNAs. Other aspects of our approach towards measuring expression of RNAs such as the typical choice of polyA+ RNA selection, enriched in mRNAs, for next generation sequencing also reinforces this bias. In summary, the 2-3% of the genome and RNAs made from it has dominated the conceptual thinking of academic and medical communities as well as industries that make devices that measure nucleic acids for research or diagnostic purposes and the pharmaceutical industry. However, during the last decade a tide of data has gained sufficient momentum to suggest that the cell actually uses the remaining 97-98% of the genome to produce stable RNAs – the so-called “dark matter” RNA. The first reports to suggest this were based on tiling array technology and sequencing of ESTs, which while powerful, had their limitations: tiling arrays could not estimate the relative mass of the RNAs produced from the non-protein coding regions in a cell and the EST sequencing methods were not deep enough. The advent of next-generation sequencing, in particular, single-molecule sequencing has allowed us not only confirm the previous observations but also for the first time to estimate not only from where, but also how much non-exonic RNA is produced. Its fraction of the total transcriptome is quite significant, up to 2/3 of all RNA made in a human cell (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/149 ). Moreover, the non-exonic RNAs are differentially expressed in disease: for example, between the primary tumors and metastatic derivatives. We believe that the logical next step from these observations is to ask three questions, perhaps some of the most important questions of our time in biomedical science: (1) do “dark matter” RNAs underlie mechanisms of human disease?; (2) Can they be used for diagnostics?; and (3) Can they be used as targets for therapeutics?. We thus would like to propose a Research Topic in the Frontiers in Genetics/Frontiers in Non-Coding RNAs that is specifically dedicated to publishing manuscripts addressing these three questions.

The Identification of Dark Matter

The Identification of Dark Matter PDF Author: Neil J C Spooner
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814480304
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 688

View

Book Description
The prestigious Identification of Dark Matter workshop series was initiated to assess the status of work that attempts to identify the constitution of dark matter. In particular, it aims to review the success of current methods that are used in the search for dark matter, as well as the new techniques that are likely to improve prospects for detecting possible dark matter candidates in the future. In the 5th International Workshop, special emphasis was placed on the recent results obtained in experiments searching for baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter. This volume comprises the high-quality review articles and papers contributed by leaders and promising young physicists who attended the conference. It provides the most recent updates on dark matter searches from both experimental and theoretical points of view. The proceedings have been selected for coverage in: • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings® (ISTP® / ISI Proceedings) • Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (ISTP CDROM version / ISI Proceedings) • CC Proceedings — Engineering & Physical Sciences Contents:Dark Matter in the Universe — Theory and Observation:Cosmology, Large Scale Structure and Dark EnergyHalos, Halo Models and Dark MatterParticle Physics and SUSYBaryonic SearchesNon-Baryonic Searches:WIMP DetectorsAxionsUnderground LaboratoriesBackground StudiesIndirect TechniquesNeutrino Readership: Academics, lecturers, researchers and graduate students working in the areas of particle physics, particle astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Keywords:Dark Matter;Neutralino;WIMPs;Axion;Neutrino;Baryonic Dark Matter;Dark Energy;DetectorsKey Features:Contains review articles by prominent experts in the fieldFocuses on the searches for baryonic and non-baryonic dark matter

Dark Matter: Big Sky Alien Mail Order Brides #3 (Intergalactic Dating Agency)

Dark Matter: Big Sky Alien Mail Order Brides #3 (Intergalactic Dating Agency) PDF Author: Elsa Jade
Publisher: Red Circle Ink
ISBN: 1941547141
Category : Fiction
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
Dating and mating are the irrational pursuits of mortal races while the rare vrykoly species watches dispassionately from afar. But after his captain and first officer find love with the extraordinary females of Earth, this vrykoly is forced to wonder if he was—dare he say it?—wrong. Piloting the deathly cold and vast distances of space is why he was meant to exist, all he’s ever known, and even his dreams have always been black and still. Can anyone ever love a soul-sucking space vampire? They're looking for love in all the wrong galaxies... Intergalactic Dating Agency Big Sky Alien Mail Order Brides #1 ~ Alpha Star #2 ~ Red Shift #3 ~ Dark Matter

Dark Sky, Dark Matter

Dark Sky, Dark Matter PDF Author: J.M Overduin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420034510
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

View

Book Description
Olbers' paradox states that given the Universe is unbounded, governed by the standard laws of physics, and populated by light sources, the night sky should be ablaze with light. Obviously this is not so. However, the paradox does not lie in nature but in our understanding of physics. A Universe with a finite age, such as follows from big-bang theor

Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs

Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs PDF Author: Lisa Randall
Publisher: Random House
ISBN: 1448192226
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 432

View

Book Description
The most thrilling, genre-busting, unlikely science book you’ll ever read, from the world-renowned, multi-award-winning, superstar physicist Lisa Randal. 66 million years ago, a ten-mile-wide object from outer space hurtled into the Earth at incredible speed. The impact annihilated the dinosaurs, along with three-quarters of the other species on the planet. But what if this catastrophe was the sign of something greater: an opening vista onto the interconnectedness of the universe itself? This is the story of the astounding forces that underpin our existence; a horizon-expanding tour of the cosmos that unifies what we know about the universe with new thinking. From the far-flung reaches of space, the makeup of the universe and our solar system's place within it, to the mysterious and elusive stuff of dark matter and how it affects life here on Earth. ‘A fascinating, and surprisingly simple, theory...and a tantalising premise’ The Times ‘Extremely engaging’ BBC Focus