Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation PDF Author: Suming Huang
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780127999586
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 400

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Book Description
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Chromatin and Gene Regulation

Chromatin and Gene Regulation PDF Author: Bryan M. Turner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470751673
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
Written in an informal and accessible style, Chromatin and Gene Regulation enables the reader to understand the science of this rapidly moving field. Chromatin is a fundamental component in the network of controls that regulates gene expression. Many human diseases have been linked to disruption of these control processes by genetic or environmental factors, and unravelling the mechanisms by which they operate is one of the most exciting and rapidly developing areas of modern biology. Chromatin is central both to the rapid changes in gene transcription by which cells respond to changes in their environment and also to the maintenance of gene expression patterns from one cell generation to the next. This book will be an invaluable guide to undergraduate and postgraduate students in the biological sciences and all those with an interest in the medical implications of aberrant gene expression.

Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression PDF Author: U Satyanarayana
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 8131241831
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 21

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Book Description
Regulation of gene expression Regulation of gene expression

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression PDF Author: Kevin V. Morris
Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press
ISBN: 9781904455943
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

Get Book

Book Description
Non-coding RNAs potentially play an active role in modulating gene transcription and epigenetic states. Several genes in differentiated cells may be under some form of RNA-based transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory control. This form of regulation may be controlled by selective pressures and influence the adaptability of the cell. The concept that RNA can control epigenetic states impacts our understanding of the basic fabric of the cell and may have therapeutic potential. Many studies have been carried out on the modulation of gene transcription by non-coding RNAs. This book, written by a group of distinguished scientists, represents an important overview and summary of the field to date. The 13 chapters are organized into three sections: a) Non-coding RNAs: Form, Function and Diversity; b) Non-coding RNAs: Gene Regulation and Epigenetics; and c) Non-coding RNAs: Disease and Therapeutics. This up-to-date volume is an essential book for those working in the area and represents a major information resource on current research in the fast-moving fields of epigenetics, the regulation of gene expression, and RNA research.

Administration and coordination of genetic expression by proteins structuring the genome

Administration and coordination of genetic expression by proteins structuring the genome PDF Author: Michèle Amouyal
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889191354
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 109

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Book Description
These last years, a new class of proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression has been unraveled besides such classical elements as polymerases, transcription factors or enhancers, directly responsible for gene expression. This class introduces a second order level of regulation which is superimposed on that of the standard regulators and is revealed by epigenetic modifications. One end of this group is occupied by the so-called gene insulators such as CTCF that organize the action of the standard regulators and of invasive chromatin in order to limit and target their action to a specific gene or genetic entity. At the other end, one would find the proteins operating at the level of the whole genome and of cellular programming, such as SATB1. They are specific proteins nearly totally dedicated to organization and coordination of gene expression, like CTCF, or proteins also found involved in other cellular devices, like transcription factors extracted from the transcriptional machinery , such as TFIIIC, or proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion, like cohesin. But they share in common to generally act over long distances or between chromosomes, to structure a true intra- or inter-chromosomal genomic architecture, and to mainly act at the epigenetic level. Their role in the control of gene expression is certified by the increasing number of pathologies to which their dysfunction contributes.

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells PDF Author: Fumiaki Uchiumi
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9535138677
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 374

Get Book

Book Description
Sixty years after the "central dogma," great achievements have been developed in molecular biology. We have also learned the important functions of noncoding RNAs and epigenetic regulations. More importantly, whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analyses enabled us to diagnose specific diseases. This book is not only intended for students and researchers working in laboratory but also physicians and pharmacists. This volume consists of 14 chapters, divided into 4 parts. Each chapter is written by experts investigating biological stresses, epigenetic regulation, and functions of transcription factors in human diseases. All articles presented in this volume by excellent investigators provide new insights into the studies in transcriptional control in mammalian cells and will inspire us to develop or establish novel therapeutics against human diseases.

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

Epigenetics in Health and Disease PDF Author: Igor Kovalchuk
Publisher: FT Press
ISBN: 0132599511
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 608

Get Book

Book Description
This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and easy-to-understand introduction to modern epigenetics. Authored by two active researchers in the field, it introduces key concepts one step at a time, enabling students at all levels to benefit from it. The authors begin by presenting a historical overview that places epigenetics in context, and makes it clear that the field is not (as some presume) completely new. Next, they introduce and explain key epigenetic mechanisms, and discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, organism development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of individual organisms with their environments. Coverage includes: non-coding RNAs in each kingdom; allelic interactions; CRYSPR; gene silencing; epigenetics of germline and epigenetic memory; epigenetic regulation of genome stability and plant stress response; and much more. The authors conclude by offering significant new insights into how knowledge of epigenetics and epigenomics may promote the development of technologies and solutions in areas ranging from behavioral neuroscience to cancer treatment, toxicology to the development of hardier crops.

Deciphering the Gene Expression Control in Epigenetic, Post-transcriptional and Translational Regulation

Deciphering the Gene Expression Control in Epigenetic, Post-transcriptional and Translational Regulation PDF Author: Jianan Lin
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Electronic dissertations
Languages : en
Pages :

Get Book

Book Description
Regulation of gene expression, through which cells increase or decrease the gene products, is an essential part of development, which not only determines the cellular differentiation but also responds to the environmental changes. A wide range of gene regulation mechanisms are involved in two major processes, from Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to Ribonucleic acid (RNA), and from RNA to protein, also known as transcription and translation, respectively. Though the regulation of gene expression is not fully understood, this complex process has been characterized to several major steps, which includes epigenetic regulation, transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation and translational regulation. The present study covers three main projects related to three of the aforementioned steps of gene regulation. First, we study the DNA methylation dynamics in the bovine early embryos. To understand the epigenetic reprogramming and regulation in the embryonic development, we characterize the methylation process at the single-base level in early embryos. Second, we develop a novel method, called Protein-RNA Association Strength (PRAS), to predict the functional targets of RNA-Binding Proteins (RBPs) that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in the post-transcriptional process. The development of various Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) data makes it possible to investigate the transcriptomic binding sites of RBPs. We aim to fill the gap between the peak-calling methods and the interpretation of RBPs' biological functions based on CLIP-seq data. Third, we study the regulation of c-MYC on the mRNA translation. The oncogenic c-MYC (MYC) transcription factor has broad effects on gene expression and cell behavior. We study how MYC affects the global translation of mRNAs and the translation start-site usage in the human lymphoma cell line. In sum, we perform data analysis and methodology development in these three specific projects related to the regulation of gene expression, which will help us better understand the central dogma of biology.

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells PDF Author: Fumiaki Uchiumi
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9535138553
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 336

Get Book

Book Description
"Central dogma" was presented by Dr. Francis Crick 60 years ago. The information of nucleotide sequences on DNAs is transcribed into RNAs by RNA polymerases. We learned the mechanisms of how transcription determines function of proteins and behaviour of cells and even how it brings appearances of organisms. This book is intended for scientists and medical researchers especially who are interested in the relationships between transcription and human diseases. This volume consists of an introductory chapter and 14 chapters, divided into 4 parts. Each chapter is written by experts in the basic scientific field. A collection of articles presented by active and laboratory-based investigators provides recent advances and progresses in the field of transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells.

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works PDF Author: Carsten Carlberg
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030523217
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 149

Get Book

Book Description
This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. Th is pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation.

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation PDF Author: Suming Huang
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780127999586
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 400

View

Book Description
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Chromatin and Gene Regulation

Chromatin and Gene Regulation PDF Author: Bryan M. Turner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470751673
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 288

View

Book Description
Written in an informal and accessible style, Chromatin and Gene Regulation enables the reader to understand the science of this rapidly moving field. Chromatin is a fundamental component in the network of controls that regulates gene expression. Many human diseases have been linked to disruption of these control processes by genetic or environmental factors, and unravelling the mechanisms by which they operate is one of the most exciting and rapidly developing areas of modern biology. Chromatin is central both to the rapid changes in gene transcription by which cells respond to changes in their environment and also to the maintenance of gene expression patterns from one cell generation to the next. This book will be an invaluable guide to undergraduate and postgraduate students in the biological sciences and all those with an interest in the medical implications of aberrant gene expression.

Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression PDF Author: U Satyanarayana
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 8131241831
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 21

View

Book Description
Regulation of gene expression Regulation of gene expression

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression PDF Author: Kevin V. Morris
Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press
ISBN: 9781904455943
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

View

Book Description
Non-coding RNAs potentially play an active role in modulating gene transcription and epigenetic states. Several genes in differentiated cells may be under some form of RNA-based transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory control. This form of regulation may be controlled by selective pressures and influence the adaptability of the cell. The concept that RNA can control epigenetic states impacts our understanding of the basic fabric of the cell and may have therapeutic potential. Many studies have been carried out on the modulation of gene transcription by non-coding RNAs. This book, written by a group of distinguished scientists, represents an important overview and summary of the field to date. The 13 chapters are organized into three sections: a) Non-coding RNAs: Form, Function and Diversity; b) Non-coding RNAs: Gene Regulation and Epigenetics; and c) Non-coding RNAs: Disease and Therapeutics. This up-to-date volume is an essential book for those working in the area and represents a major information resource on current research in the fast-moving fields of epigenetics, the regulation of gene expression, and RNA research.

Administration and coordination of genetic expression by proteins structuring the genome

Administration and coordination of genetic expression by proteins structuring the genome PDF Author: Michèle Amouyal
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889191354
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 109

View

Book Description
These last years, a new class of proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression has been unraveled besides such classical elements as polymerases, transcription factors or enhancers, directly responsible for gene expression. This class introduces a second order level of regulation which is superimposed on that of the standard regulators and is revealed by epigenetic modifications. One end of this group is occupied by the so-called gene insulators such as CTCF that organize the action of the standard regulators and of invasive chromatin in order to limit and target their action to a specific gene or genetic entity. At the other end, one would find the proteins operating at the level of the whole genome and of cellular programming, such as SATB1. They are specific proteins nearly totally dedicated to organization and coordination of gene expression, like CTCF, or proteins also found involved in other cellular devices, like transcription factors extracted from the transcriptional machinery , such as TFIIIC, or proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion, like cohesin. But they share in common to generally act over long distances or between chromosomes, to structure a true intra- or inter-chromosomal genomic architecture, and to mainly act at the epigenetic level. Their role in the control of gene expression is certified by the increasing number of pathologies to which their dysfunction contributes.

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells PDF Author: Fumiaki Uchiumi
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9535138677
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 374

View

Book Description
Sixty years after the "central dogma," great achievements have been developed in molecular biology. We have also learned the important functions of noncoding RNAs and epigenetic regulations. More importantly, whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analyses enabled us to diagnose specific diseases. This book is not only intended for students and researchers working in laboratory but also physicians and pharmacists. This volume consists of 14 chapters, divided into 4 parts. Each chapter is written by experts investigating biological stresses, epigenetic regulation, and functions of transcription factors in human diseases. All articles presented in this volume by excellent investigators provide new insights into the studies in transcriptional control in mammalian cells and will inspire us to develop or establish novel therapeutics against human diseases.

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

Epigenetics in Health and Disease PDF Author: Igor Kovalchuk
Publisher: FT Press
ISBN: 0132599511
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 608

View

Book Description
This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and easy-to-understand introduction to modern epigenetics. Authored by two active researchers in the field, it introduces key concepts one step at a time, enabling students at all levels to benefit from it. The authors begin by presenting a historical overview that places epigenetics in context, and makes it clear that the field is not (as some presume) completely new. Next, they introduce and explain key epigenetic mechanisms, and discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, organism development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of individual organisms with their environments. Coverage includes: non-coding RNAs in each kingdom; allelic interactions; CRYSPR; gene silencing; epigenetics of germline and epigenetic memory; epigenetic regulation of genome stability and plant stress response; and much more. The authors conclude by offering significant new insights into how knowledge of epigenetics and epigenomics may promote the development of technologies and solutions in areas ranging from behavioral neuroscience to cancer treatment, toxicology to the development of hardier crops.

Deciphering the Gene Expression Control in Epigenetic, Post-transcriptional and Translational Regulation

Deciphering the Gene Expression Control in Epigenetic, Post-transcriptional and Translational Regulation PDF Author: Jianan Lin
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Electronic dissertations
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
Regulation of gene expression, through which cells increase or decrease the gene products, is an essential part of development, which not only determines the cellular differentiation but also responds to the environmental changes. A wide range of gene regulation mechanisms are involved in two major processes, from Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to Ribonucleic acid (RNA), and from RNA to protein, also known as transcription and translation, respectively. Though the regulation of gene expression is not fully understood, this complex process has been characterized to several major steps, which includes epigenetic regulation, transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation and translational regulation. The present study covers three main projects related to three of the aforementioned steps of gene regulation. First, we study the DNA methylation dynamics in the bovine early embryos. To understand the epigenetic reprogramming and regulation in the embryonic development, we characterize the methylation process at the single-base level in early embryos. Second, we develop a novel method, called Protein-RNA Association Strength (PRAS), to predict the functional targets of RNA-Binding Proteins (RBPs) that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in the post-transcriptional process. The development of various Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) data makes it possible to investigate the transcriptomic binding sites of RBPs. We aim to fill the gap between the peak-calling methods and the interpretation of RBPs' biological functions based on CLIP-seq data. Third, we study the regulation of c-MYC on the mRNA translation. The oncogenic c-MYC (MYC) transcription factor has broad effects on gene expression and cell behavior. We study how MYC affects the global translation of mRNAs and the translation start-site usage in the human lymphoma cell line. In sum, we perform data analysis and methodology development in these three specific projects related to the regulation of gene expression, which will help us better understand the central dogma of biology.

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells

Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells PDF Author: Fumiaki Uchiumi
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9535138553
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 336

View

Book Description
"Central dogma" was presented by Dr. Francis Crick 60 years ago. The information of nucleotide sequences on DNAs is transcribed into RNAs by RNA polymerases. We learned the mechanisms of how transcription determines function of proteins and behaviour of cells and even how it brings appearances of organisms. This book is intended for scientists and medical researchers especially who are interested in the relationships between transcription and human diseases. This volume consists of an introductory chapter and 14 chapters, divided into 4 parts. Each chapter is written by experts in the basic scientific field. A collection of articles presented by active and laboratory-based investigators provides recent advances and progresses in the field of transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells.

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works PDF Author: Carsten Carlberg
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030523217
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 149

View

Book Description
This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. Th is pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation.