Four-Dimensionalism

Four-Dimensionalism PDF Author: Theodore Sider
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191529583
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 280

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Book Description
Four-Dimensionalism defends the thesis that the material world is composed of temporal as well as spatial parts. This defense includes a novel account of persistence over time, new arguments in favour of the four-dimensional ontology, and responses to the challenges four-dimensionalism faces. Theodore Sider pays particular attention to the philosophy of time, including a strong series of arguments against presentism, the thesis that only the present is real. Arguments offered in favour of four-dimensionalism include novel arguments based on time travel, the debate beween spacetime substantivalists and relationalists, and vagueness. Also included is a comprehensive discussion of the paradoxes of coinciding material objects, and a novel resolution of those paradoxes based on temporal counterpart theory. In conclusion Sider replies to prominent objections to four-dimensionalism, including discussion of the problem of the rotating homogenous disk. Four Dimensionalism is an original and highly readable study of the metaphysics of time and identity.

Four-dimensionalism

Four-dimensionalism PDF Author: Theodore Sider
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199263523
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 255

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Book Description
Four-Dimensionalism defends the thesis that the material world is composed of temporal as well as spatial parts. This defense includes a novel account of persistence over time, new arguments in favour of the four-dimensional ontology, and responses to the challenges four-dimensionalism faces. Theodore Sider pays particular attention to the philosophy of time, including a strong series of arguments against presentism, the thesis that only the present is real. Arguments offered in favour offour-dimensionalism include novel arguments based on time travel, the debate beween spacetime substantivalists and relationalists, and vagueness. Also included is a comprehensive discussion of the paradoxes of coinciding material objects, and a novel resolution of those paradoxes based on temporal counterpart theory. In conclusion Sider replies to prominent objections to four-dimensionalism, including discussion of the problem of the rotating homogenous disk. Four Dimensionalism is an originaland highly readable study of the metaphysics of time and identity.

A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person

A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person PDF Author: Hud Hudson
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501725718
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 224

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Book Description
Hud Hudson presents an innovative view of the metaphysics of human persons according to which human persons are material objects but not human organisms. In developing his account, he formulates and defends a unique collection of positions on parthood, persistence, vagueness, composition, identity, and various puzzles of material constitution. The author also applies his materialist metaphysics to issues in ethics and in the philosophy of religion. He examines the implications for ethics of his metaphysical views for standard arguments addressing the moral permissibility of our treatment of human persons and their parts, fetuses and infants, the irreversibly comatose, and corpses. He argues that his metaphysics provides the best foundation in the philosophy of religion for the Christian doctrine of the resurrection of the body. Hudson addresses a broad range of metaphysical issues, but among his most strikingly original contributions are his defense of the "Partist" view (according to which a material object can exactly occupy multiple, overlapping regions of spacetime) and his argument for the compatibility of Christianity with a materialistic theory of human persons.

The Metaphysics of Identity

The Metaphysics of Identity PDF Author: André Gallois
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135015678
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 216

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Book Description
The philosophical problem of identity and the related problem of change go back to the ancient Greek philosophers and fascinated later figures including Leibniz, Locke, and Hume. Heraclitus argued that one could not swim in the same river twice because new waters were ever flowing in. When is a river not the same river? If one removes one plank at a time when is a ship no longer a ship? What is the basic nature of identity and persistence? In this book, André Gallois introduces and assesses the philosophical puzzles posed by things persisting through time. Beginning with essential historical background to the problem he explores the following key topics and debates: mereology and identity, including arguments from 'Leibniz's Law' the constitution view of identity the 'relative identity' argument concerning identity temporary identity four-dimensionalism, counterpart and multiple counterpart theory supervenience the problem of temporary intrinsics the necessity of identity Indeterminate identity presentism criteria of identity conventionalism about identity. Including chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary, this book is essential reading for anyone seeking a clear and informative introduction to and assessment of the metaphysics of identity.

Anselm on Freedom

Anselm on Freedom PDF Author: Katherin Rogers
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191552410
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 240

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Book Description
Can human beings be free and responsible if there is a God? Anselm of Canterbury, the first Christian philosopher to propose that human beings have a really robust free will, offers viable answers to questions which have plagued religious people for at least two thousand years: If divine grace cannot be merited and is necessary to save fallen humanity, how can there be any decisive role for individual free choice to play? If God knows today what you are going to choose tomorrow, then when tomorrow comes you have to choose what God foreknew, so how can your choice be free? If human beings must have the option to choose between good and evil in order to be morally responsible, must God be able to choose evil? Anselm answers these questions with a sophisticated theory of free will which defends both human freedom and the sovereignty and goodness of God.

Occasions of Identity

Occasions of Identity PDF Author: André Gallois
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199261833
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 296

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Book Description
In this exploration of timeless philosophical issues regarding persistence, change, time, and sameness Andre Gallois offers a critical survey of a number of rival views about the nature of identity and change and proposes his own original theory in the face of the prevailing orthodoxy.

Individuals, Essence and Identity

Individuals, Essence and Identity PDF Author: A. Bottani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401718660
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 501

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Book Description
Andrea Bottani Massimiliano Carrara Pierdaniele Giaretta What do we do when we do metaphysics? The aim of this introduction is to give a provisional answer to this question, and then to explain the subtitle of the volume. It is easy to observe that when we do meta physics we engage in a linguistic activity, mainly consisting of uttering declarative sentences that are not very clear to most people. That is true, but, of course, it is not very informative. What do we speak of when we do metaphysics? A traditional answer could be: we speak of what things really are, so suggesting that things can appear in a way that is different from the way they really are. So understood, meta physics is about the sense, or the senses, of "real being". A question that immediately arises is whether the sense of being is unique or is different for different types of things. Another question is whether it is possible that something could appear to be, but really not be. Modem analytic metaphysicians usually answer that the sense of being is unique, while acknowledging that there are different kinds of things, and that to say that something could appear to be but really not be is a plain contradiction, unless what is understood is that it could appear to us that there is something having such and such features, but viii Individuals, Essence, and Identity really there is no such a thing.

The Language and Reality of Time

The Language and Reality of Time PDF Author: Thomas Sattig
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191535486
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 234

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Book Description
Thomas Sattig's book develops a comprehensive framework for doing philosophy of time. He brings together a variety of different perspectives, linking our ordinary conception of time with the physicist's conception, and linking questions about time addressed in metaphysics with questions addressed in the philosophy of language. Within this framework, Sattig explores the temporal dimension of the material world in relation to the temporal dimension of our ordinary discourse about the world. The discussion is centred around the dispute between three-dimensionalists and four-dimensionalists about whether the temporal profile of ordinary objects mirrors their spatial profile. Are ordinary objects extended in time in the same way in which they are extended in space? Do they have temporal as well as spatial parts? Four-dimensionalists say 'yes', three-dimensionalists say 'no'. Sattig develops an original three-dimensionalist picture of the material world, and argues that this picture is preferable to its four-dimensionalists rivals if ordinary thought and talk are taken seriously. Among the issues that Sattig discusses are the metaphysics of persistence, change, composition, location, coincidence, and relativity; the ontology of past, present, and future; and the semantics of predication, tense, temporal modifiers, and sortal terms.

Issues in Theoretical Diversity

Issues in Theoretical Diversity PDF Author: Kristie Lyn Miller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402052561
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 258

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Book Description
Our world is full of composite objects that persist through time: dogs, persons, chairs and rocks. But in virtue of what do a bunch of little objects get to compose some bigger object, and how does that bigger object persist through time? This book aims to answer these questions, but it does so by looking at accounts of composition and persistence through a new methodological lens. It thereby offers a completely novel view about persistence and composition.

Unity and Time in Metaphysics

Unity and Time in Metaphysics PDF Author: Ludger Honnefelder
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 311021234X
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 254

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Book Description
The contributions to this collection deal with the fundamental problem of unity, which plays a decisive role in many contemporary debates (even when this role is not acknowledged). Questions like whether there can be unities that persist through time ? e.g. persons who remain the same throughout their lives ? are discussed from various perspectives. Is such an idea possible at all, and if so, what role do concepts like force, capacity, and disposition play in this context?

Four-Dimensionalism

Four-Dimensionalism PDF Author: Theodore Sider
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191529583
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 280

View

Book Description
Four-Dimensionalism defends the thesis that the material world is composed of temporal as well as spatial parts. This defense includes a novel account of persistence over time, new arguments in favour of the four-dimensional ontology, and responses to the challenges four-dimensionalism faces. Theodore Sider pays particular attention to the philosophy of time, including a strong series of arguments against presentism, the thesis that only the present is real. Arguments offered in favour of four-dimensionalism include novel arguments based on time travel, the debate beween spacetime substantivalists and relationalists, and vagueness. Also included is a comprehensive discussion of the paradoxes of coinciding material objects, and a novel resolution of those paradoxes based on temporal counterpart theory. In conclusion Sider replies to prominent objections to four-dimensionalism, including discussion of the problem of the rotating homogenous disk. Four Dimensionalism is an original and highly readable study of the metaphysics of time and identity.

Four-dimensionalism

Four-dimensionalism PDF Author: Theodore Sider
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199263523
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 255

View

Book Description
Four-Dimensionalism defends the thesis that the material world is composed of temporal as well as spatial parts. This defense includes a novel account of persistence over time, new arguments in favour of the four-dimensional ontology, and responses to the challenges four-dimensionalism faces. Theodore Sider pays particular attention to the philosophy of time, including a strong series of arguments against presentism, the thesis that only the present is real. Arguments offered in favour offour-dimensionalism include novel arguments based on time travel, the debate beween spacetime substantivalists and relationalists, and vagueness. Also included is a comprehensive discussion of the paradoxes of coinciding material objects, and a novel resolution of those paradoxes based on temporal counterpart theory. In conclusion Sider replies to prominent objections to four-dimensionalism, including discussion of the problem of the rotating homogenous disk. Four Dimensionalism is an originaland highly readable study of the metaphysics of time and identity.

A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person

A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person PDF Author: Hud Hudson
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501725718
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 224

View

Book Description
Hud Hudson presents an innovative view of the metaphysics of human persons according to which human persons are material objects but not human organisms. In developing his account, he formulates and defends a unique collection of positions on parthood, persistence, vagueness, composition, identity, and various puzzles of material constitution. The author also applies his materialist metaphysics to issues in ethics and in the philosophy of religion. He examines the implications for ethics of his metaphysical views for standard arguments addressing the moral permissibility of our treatment of human persons and their parts, fetuses and infants, the irreversibly comatose, and corpses. He argues that his metaphysics provides the best foundation in the philosophy of religion for the Christian doctrine of the resurrection of the body. Hudson addresses a broad range of metaphysical issues, but among his most strikingly original contributions are his defense of the "Partist" view (according to which a material object can exactly occupy multiple, overlapping regions of spacetime) and his argument for the compatibility of Christianity with a materialistic theory of human persons.

The Metaphysics of Identity

The Metaphysics of Identity PDF Author: André Gallois
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135015678
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 216

View

Book Description
The philosophical problem of identity and the related problem of change go back to the ancient Greek philosophers and fascinated later figures including Leibniz, Locke, and Hume. Heraclitus argued that one could not swim in the same river twice because new waters were ever flowing in. When is a river not the same river? If one removes one plank at a time when is a ship no longer a ship? What is the basic nature of identity and persistence? In this book, André Gallois introduces and assesses the philosophical puzzles posed by things persisting through time. Beginning with essential historical background to the problem he explores the following key topics and debates: mereology and identity, including arguments from 'Leibniz's Law' the constitution view of identity the 'relative identity' argument concerning identity temporary identity four-dimensionalism, counterpart and multiple counterpart theory supervenience the problem of temporary intrinsics the necessity of identity Indeterminate identity presentism criteria of identity conventionalism about identity. Including chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary, this book is essential reading for anyone seeking a clear and informative introduction to and assessment of the metaphysics of identity.

Anselm on Freedom

Anselm on Freedom PDF Author: Katherin Rogers
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191552410
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 240

View

Book Description
Can human beings be free and responsible if there is a God? Anselm of Canterbury, the first Christian philosopher to propose that human beings have a really robust free will, offers viable answers to questions which have plagued religious people for at least two thousand years: If divine grace cannot be merited and is necessary to save fallen humanity, how can there be any decisive role for individual free choice to play? If God knows today what you are going to choose tomorrow, then when tomorrow comes you have to choose what God foreknew, so how can your choice be free? If human beings must have the option to choose between good and evil in order to be morally responsible, must God be able to choose evil? Anselm answers these questions with a sophisticated theory of free will which defends both human freedom and the sovereignty and goodness of God.

Occasions of Identity

Occasions of Identity PDF Author: André Gallois
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199261833
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 296

View

Book Description
In this exploration of timeless philosophical issues regarding persistence, change, time, and sameness Andre Gallois offers a critical survey of a number of rival views about the nature of identity and change and proposes his own original theory in the face of the prevailing orthodoxy.

Individuals, Essence and Identity

Individuals, Essence and Identity PDF Author: A. Bottani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401718660
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 501

View

Book Description
Andrea Bottani Massimiliano Carrara Pierdaniele Giaretta What do we do when we do metaphysics? The aim of this introduction is to give a provisional answer to this question, and then to explain the subtitle of the volume. It is easy to observe that when we do meta physics we engage in a linguistic activity, mainly consisting of uttering declarative sentences that are not very clear to most people. That is true, but, of course, it is not very informative. What do we speak of when we do metaphysics? A traditional answer could be: we speak of what things really are, so suggesting that things can appear in a way that is different from the way they really are. So understood, meta physics is about the sense, or the senses, of "real being". A question that immediately arises is whether the sense of being is unique or is different for different types of things. Another question is whether it is possible that something could appear to be, but really not be. Modem analytic metaphysicians usually answer that the sense of being is unique, while acknowledging that there are different kinds of things, and that to say that something could appear to be but really not be is a plain contradiction, unless what is understood is that it could appear to us that there is something having such and such features, but viii Individuals, Essence, and Identity really there is no such a thing.

The Language and Reality of Time

The Language and Reality of Time PDF Author: Thomas Sattig
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191535486
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 234

View

Book Description
Thomas Sattig's book develops a comprehensive framework for doing philosophy of time. He brings together a variety of different perspectives, linking our ordinary conception of time with the physicist's conception, and linking questions about time addressed in metaphysics with questions addressed in the philosophy of language. Within this framework, Sattig explores the temporal dimension of the material world in relation to the temporal dimension of our ordinary discourse about the world. The discussion is centred around the dispute between three-dimensionalists and four-dimensionalists about whether the temporal profile of ordinary objects mirrors their spatial profile. Are ordinary objects extended in time in the same way in which they are extended in space? Do they have temporal as well as spatial parts? Four-dimensionalists say 'yes', three-dimensionalists say 'no'. Sattig develops an original three-dimensionalist picture of the material world, and argues that this picture is preferable to its four-dimensionalists rivals if ordinary thought and talk are taken seriously. Among the issues that Sattig discusses are the metaphysics of persistence, change, composition, location, coincidence, and relativity; the ontology of past, present, and future; and the semantics of predication, tense, temporal modifiers, and sortal terms.

Issues in Theoretical Diversity

Issues in Theoretical Diversity PDF Author: Kristie Lyn Miller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402052561
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 258

View

Book Description
Our world is full of composite objects that persist through time: dogs, persons, chairs and rocks. But in virtue of what do a bunch of little objects get to compose some bigger object, and how does that bigger object persist through time? This book aims to answer these questions, but it does so by looking at accounts of composition and persistence through a new methodological lens. It thereby offers a completely novel view about persistence and composition.

Unity and Time in Metaphysics

Unity and Time in Metaphysics PDF Author: Ludger Honnefelder
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 311021234X
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 254

View

Book Description
The contributions to this collection deal with the fundamental problem of unity, which plays a decisive role in many contemporary debates (even when this role is not acknowledged). Questions like whether there can be unities that persist through time ? e.g. persons who remain the same throughout their lives ? are discussed from various perspectives. Is such an idea possible at all, and if so, what role do concepts like force, capacity, and disposition play in this context?