International Trade and Health Protection

International Trade and Health Protection PDF Author: Tracey Epps
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1848443870
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 368

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Book Description
This detailed and fully referenced text is a valuable resource both for practitioners and academics. Michael Blakeney, International Trade Law and Regulation Interspersing law with societal context, this volume by Dr Epps stands out among WTO analysis. The author offers a delightfully balanced view on the nature and origin of SPS measures (including references to history) whilst at the same time mastering the hard law of the SPS Agreement in detail. Practitioners will enjoy the detailed analysis of WTO dispute settlement. A reference book for practice and academia, and also a very, very good read. Geert Van Calster, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium This book examines and critiques the WTO s Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), asking whether it strikes an appropriate balance between conflicting domestic health protection and trade liberalization objectives. It pays particular attention to situations likely to occur but not yet fully examined either in the literature or in WTO law; most importantly, where public opinion demands regulation in the face of scientific uncertainty as to the existence or otherwise of a health risk. Tracey Epps concludes that the SPS Agreement s science-based framework is capable of dealing with the differing objectives of health and trade, and that it provides countries with more flexibility to respond to scientific uncertainties and public sentiment than many critics contend. This conclusion is strongly influenced by a positive analysis of domestic regulatory decision-making, which finds potential for regulatory capture by domestic protectionist interests and thus emphasizes the importance of ensuring that decisions are made on a sound and principled basis. Including a historical overview of disputes over trade and health since the 1800s, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of and new perspective on an important area of intersection between international trade law and domestic policy. It will be of interest to a wide-ranging audience including legal and non-legal academics, policy makers and analysts in the field of risk regulation, trade law practitioners in governments, and lawyers and analysts in international institutions.

Trade, Health, and the Burden of Proof in WTO Law

Trade, Health, and the Burden of Proof in WTO Law PDF Author: Joachim Ahman
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041142916
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
Most of us do not immediately think of health protection measures as trade barriers. Yet to the trade liberalization interest they are often exactly that--"hidden protectionism" some would say. When the conflict between trade and health hardens into a confrontation, allocation of the burden of proof becomes the critical factor in determining the outcome. And the outcome of such a WTO dispute may affect a very large number of people. This important book examines the WTO provisions applicable to health protection measures from a burden of proof perspective, with an up-to-date and thorough analysis of all relevant case law. It clearly demonstrates and explains the following and more: how burden of proof decisions, following from the burden of proof concept as it has developed in national legal systems and in general international law, may favour or disfavor different interests; the problems that may occur when risk-related facts have to be proved;how the legal facts in the WTO provisions specifically regulating the adoption of health protection measures have been interpreted in case law; and how the burden of proof concept can be used to balance the conflicting interests in ways other than those used so far. No other source offers such a comprehensive analysis of WTO provisions applicable to health protection measures. This book's burden of proof perspective makes it an especially valuable resource for trade law experts, WTO member representatives, and interested NGOs seeking to understand and discuss the balancing of health protection and trade liberalization.

Risky Trade

Risky Trade PDF Author: Ann Marie Kimball
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317062566
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 230

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Book Description
The current value of global trade has reached a staggering annual figure of $6 trillion in merchandise crossing borders. Such prolific global trading has, at the same time, begun to raise fears of pandemics and concerns for global health. Yet, investment in public health infrastructure and disease control was never designed to cope with international trade of this volume and diversity. Indeed, most health systems lag far behind, especially in poor countries. This has created new vulnerabilities for global populations to the introduction and amplification of infection through trade. Public fears have been further heightened by frightening news reports of deadly diseases such as Mad Cow disease and E. Coli. Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade provides a thorough examination of the actual risks posed by disease in the age of globalization. Drawing on the economics of international trade and epidemiology, the author explores the critical health issues arising from the enormous increase in global trade and travel. Issues covered include: ¢ The scale of the problem with particular reference to the Sakai outbreak of E. Coli; ¢ Risks from particular microbes - Enteric and viral infections; Highly infectious agents; Antimicrobial resistance; and, Stealth agents; ¢ Global outbreaks as a result of human travel and trade; ¢ Prevention, surveillance and control; ¢ The future health of global trading. In addition to highlighting the problems, the book also addresses some of the potential benefits the same globalization can bring to epidemic control through surveillance, diagnostics, treatment and investigation. The empirical approach ties together existing descriptions and case studies of epidemics building a comprehensive framework for examining new events and considering historical experience with infectious outbreaks. The volume will be a valuable guide to students, academics, practitioners, and policy makers in the areas of international trade, health economics, epidemiology, international/public health and disease control.

Trade in Health Services

Trade in Health Services PDF Author: Nick Drager
Publisher: Pan Amer Health Org
ISBN:
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 234

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Book Description
This publication contains selected papers presented at the inter-regional meeting on health and trade issues, held in Washington D.C. in November 1999. The meeting was organised by the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, and included participants from the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Switzerland and Indonesia. The principal objective of the meeting was to identify and explore options for co-operation between the health service and trade sectors, in order to effective develop health protection and promotion strategies.

Trade and Health

Trade and Health PDF Author: Chantal Blouin
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773578587
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
Seeking improved health and increased income have long been common goals. Those who make the case that free trade will help everyone argue that the growth from increased trade will be shared and will improve people's lives. But they have not answered the fundamental question of how to formulate trade policy to simultaneously achieve growth and benefit health. Trade and Health answers this question by exploring the entire array of avenues through which trade affects health, and examining a number of case studies on how best to achieve policies that integrate health objectives. The contributors represent the full range of stakeholders in the trade-health debate - medical professionals, civil society representatives, academics from a range of disciplines, and negotiators and policy-makers at the national and global levels. Contributors include Bijit Bora (WTO), Rupa Chanda (IIMB), Diana Chigas (Tufts), Carlos Correa (U of Buenos Aires), Eric Dagenais (Industry Canada), Alison Earle (Harvard), David P. Fidler (Indiana), Anabel González (WTO), Ronald Labonte (Ottawa), Cha-aim Pachnee (MOPH-Thailand), Pedro Roffe (UNCTAD-ICTSD), Nancy Ross (McGill), David Sanders (Western Cape), Ted Schrecker (Ottawa), Anna Shea (McGill), Elisabeth Tuerk (UNCTAD), David Vivas-Eugui (ICTSD), Johanna von Braun (ICTSD), and Suwit Wibulpolprasert (MOPH-Thailand).

The Regulation of International Trade

The Regulation of International Trade PDF Author: Michael J. Trebilcock
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415700344
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 780

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Book Description
Fully updated, this new edition takes account of the most recent developments in international trade. Drawing on the success of the earlier edition, it provides a comprehensive introduction to the rules and institutions that govern international trade, including: competition, labor rights, the Multilateral Agreement of Investment, the Basic Telecoms and Financial Services World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements, and an analysis of the first three years of WTO dispute rulings. Copyright © Libri GmbH. All rights reserved.

Trade Therapy

Trade Therapy PDF Author: World Bank;World Trade Organization
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464818886
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 228

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Book Description
The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has exposed the upsides and downsides of international trade in medical goods and services. Open trade can increase access to medical services and goods—and the critical inputs needed to manufacture them—improve quality and variety, and reduce costs. However, excessive concentration of production, restrictive trade policies, supply chain disruptions, and regulatory divergence can jeopardize the ability of public health systems to respond to pandemics and other health crises. Trade Therapy: Deepening Cooperation to Strengthen Pandemic Defenses, coordinated by Nadia Rocha and Michele Ruta at the World Bank and Marc Bacchetta and Joscelyn Magdeleine at the World Trade Organization, provides new data on trade in medical goods and services and medical value chains, surveys the evolving policy landscape before and during the pandemic, and proposes an action plan to improve trade policies and deepen international cooperation to deal with future pandemics. As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers, the focus of policy action is on the response, which includes actions aimed at removing bottlenecks and providing government support to promote equitable access to vaccines. As the emergency subsides, the focus should shift to prevention and preparedness. Steps to close information gaps—building on the Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19, the ACT-Accelerator, and the open markets, for example—by negotiating tariff reductions on medical goods and greater market access in services should take priority. Also important are measures to improve the efficiency of markets, which include harmonizing regulation through mutual recognition or equivalence of standards and creating international standards for essential medical goods, inputs, and production processes. Agreement on a crisis rulebook to be deployed during an emergency—including clear and agreed limits on export policy flexibility and shared rules on intellectual property flexibilities—would provide a more solid policy foundation to address future challenges.

Narrowing the Channel

Narrowing the Channel PDF Author: Robert Gulotty
Publisher: Chicago International and Domestic Institutions
ISBN: 022666936X
Category : Globalization
Languages : en
Pages : 240

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Book Description
While large, multinational corporations have supported the removal of tariffs, behind the scenes these firms have fought for protection in the form of product regulations, including testing, labeling, and registration requirements. Unlike tariffs, these regulations can raise fixed costs, excluding smaller firms from the market and shifting profits toward global giants. Narrowing the Channel demonstrates that globalization and globalized firms can paradoxically hinder rather than foster economic cooperation as larger firms seek to protect their markets through often unnecessarily strict product regulations. To illustrate the problem of regulatory protectionism, Robert Gulotty offers an in-depth analysis of contemporary rulemaking in the United States and the European Union in the areas of health, safety, and environmental standards. He shows how large firms seek regulatory schemes that disproportionately disadvantage small firms. When multinationals are embedded in the local economy, governments too have an incentive to use these regulations to shift profits back home. Today, the key challenge to governing global trade is not how much trade occurs but who is allowed to participate, and this book shows that new rules will be needed to allow governments to widen the benefits of global commerce and avoid further inequality and market concentration.

International Trade and Health Protection

International Trade and Health Protection PDF Author: Tracey Epps
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1848443870
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 368

View

Book Description
This detailed and fully referenced text is a valuable resource both for practitioners and academics. Michael Blakeney, International Trade Law and Regulation Interspersing law with societal context, this volume by Dr Epps stands out among WTO analysis. The author offers a delightfully balanced view on the nature and origin of SPS measures (including references to history) whilst at the same time mastering the hard law of the SPS Agreement in detail. Practitioners will enjoy the detailed analysis of WTO dispute settlement. A reference book for practice and academia, and also a very, very good read. Geert Van Calster, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium This book examines and critiques the WTO s Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), asking whether it strikes an appropriate balance between conflicting domestic health protection and trade liberalization objectives. It pays particular attention to situations likely to occur but not yet fully examined either in the literature or in WTO law; most importantly, where public opinion demands regulation in the face of scientific uncertainty as to the existence or otherwise of a health risk. Tracey Epps concludes that the SPS Agreement s science-based framework is capable of dealing with the differing objectives of health and trade, and that it provides countries with more flexibility to respond to scientific uncertainties and public sentiment than many critics contend. This conclusion is strongly influenced by a positive analysis of domestic regulatory decision-making, which finds potential for regulatory capture by domestic protectionist interests and thus emphasizes the importance of ensuring that decisions are made on a sound and principled basis. Including a historical overview of disputes over trade and health since the 1800s, this book provides a comprehensive analysis of and new perspective on an important area of intersection between international trade law and domestic policy. It will be of interest to a wide-ranging audience including legal and non-legal academics, policy makers and analysts in the field of risk regulation, trade law practitioners in governments, and lawyers and analysts in international institutions.

Journal of World Trade Law

Journal of World Trade Law PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Commerce
Languages : en
Pages : 632

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Book Description


Trade, Health, and the Burden of Proof in WTO Law

Trade, Health, and the Burden of Proof in WTO Law PDF Author: Joachim Ahman
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041142916
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 352

View

Book Description
Most of us do not immediately think of health protection measures as trade barriers. Yet to the trade liberalization interest they are often exactly that--"hidden protectionism" some would say. When the conflict between trade and health hardens into a confrontation, allocation of the burden of proof becomes the critical factor in determining the outcome. And the outcome of such a WTO dispute may affect a very large number of people. This important book examines the WTO provisions applicable to health protection measures from a burden of proof perspective, with an up-to-date and thorough analysis of all relevant case law. It clearly demonstrates and explains the following and more: how burden of proof decisions, following from the burden of proof concept as it has developed in national legal systems and in general international law, may favour or disfavor different interests; the problems that may occur when risk-related facts have to be proved;how the legal facts in the WTO provisions specifically regulating the adoption of health protection measures have been interpreted in case law; and how the burden of proof concept can be used to balance the conflicting interests in ways other than those used so far. No other source offers such a comprehensive analysis of WTO provisions applicable to health protection measures. This book's burden of proof perspective makes it an especially valuable resource for trade law experts, WTO member representatives, and interested NGOs seeking to understand and discuss the balancing of health protection and trade liberalization.

International Trade and Public Health Protection

International Trade and Public Health Protection PDF Author: Frédéric Forge
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : International trade
Languages : en
Pages : 2

View

Book Description


Risky Trade

Risky Trade PDF Author: Ann Marie Kimball
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317062566
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 230

View

Book Description
The current value of global trade has reached a staggering annual figure of $6 trillion in merchandise crossing borders. Such prolific global trading has, at the same time, begun to raise fears of pandemics and concerns for global health. Yet, investment in public health infrastructure and disease control was never designed to cope with international trade of this volume and diversity. Indeed, most health systems lag far behind, especially in poor countries. This has created new vulnerabilities for global populations to the introduction and amplification of infection through trade. Public fears have been further heightened by frightening news reports of deadly diseases such as Mad Cow disease and E. Coli. Risky Trade: Infectious Disease in the Era of Global Trade provides a thorough examination of the actual risks posed by disease in the age of globalization. Drawing on the economics of international trade and epidemiology, the author explores the critical health issues arising from the enormous increase in global trade and travel. Issues covered include: ¢ The scale of the problem with particular reference to the Sakai outbreak of E. Coli; ¢ Risks from particular microbes - Enteric and viral infections; Highly infectious agents; Antimicrobial resistance; and, Stealth agents; ¢ Global outbreaks as a result of human travel and trade; ¢ Prevention, surveillance and control; ¢ The future health of global trading. In addition to highlighting the problems, the book also addresses some of the potential benefits the same globalization can bring to epidemic control through surveillance, diagnostics, treatment and investigation. The empirical approach ties together existing descriptions and case studies of epidemics building a comprehensive framework for examining new events and considering historical experience with infectious outbreaks. The volume will be a valuable guide to students, academics, practitioners, and policy makers in the areas of international trade, health economics, epidemiology, international/public health and disease control.

Trade in Health Services

Trade in Health Services PDF Author: Nick Drager
Publisher: Pan Amer Health Org
ISBN:
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 234

View

Book Description
This publication contains selected papers presented at the inter-regional meeting on health and trade issues, held in Washington D.C. in November 1999. The meeting was organised by the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, and included participants from the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Switzerland and Indonesia. The principal objective of the meeting was to identify and explore options for co-operation between the health service and trade sectors, in order to effective develop health protection and promotion strategies.

Trade and Health

Trade and Health PDF Author: Chantal Blouin
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773578587
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 384

View

Book Description
Seeking improved health and increased income have long been common goals. Those who make the case that free trade will help everyone argue that the growth from increased trade will be shared and will improve people's lives. But they have not answered the fundamental question of how to formulate trade policy to simultaneously achieve growth and benefit health. Trade and Health answers this question by exploring the entire array of avenues through which trade affects health, and examining a number of case studies on how best to achieve policies that integrate health objectives. The contributors represent the full range of stakeholders in the trade-health debate - medical professionals, civil society representatives, academics from a range of disciplines, and negotiators and policy-makers at the national and global levels. Contributors include Bijit Bora (WTO), Rupa Chanda (IIMB), Diana Chigas (Tufts), Carlos Correa (U of Buenos Aires), Eric Dagenais (Industry Canada), Alison Earle (Harvard), David P. Fidler (Indiana), Anabel González (WTO), Ronald Labonte (Ottawa), Cha-aim Pachnee (MOPH-Thailand), Pedro Roffe (UNCTAD-ICTSD), Nancy Ross (McGill), David Sanders (Western Cape), Ted Schrecker (Ottawa), Anna Shea (McGill), Elisabeth Tuerk (UNCTAD), David Vivas-Eugui (ICTSD), Johanna von Braun (ICTSD), and Suwit Wibulpolprasert (MOPH-Thailand).

The Regulation of International Trade

The Regulation of International Trade PDF Author: Michael J. Trebilcock
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415700344
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 780

View

Book Description
Fully updated, this new edition takes account of the most recent developments in international trade. Drawing on the success of the earlier edition, it provides a comprehensive introduction to the rules and institutions that govern international trade, including: competition, labor rights, the Multilateral Agreement of Investment, the Basic Telecoms and Financial Services World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreements, and an analysis of the first three years of WTO dispute rulings. Copyright © Libri GmbH. All rights reserved.

Trade Therapy

Trade Therapy PDF Author: World Bank;World Trade Organization
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464818886
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 228

View

Book Description
The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has exposed the upsides and downsides of international trade in medical goods and services. Open trade can increase access to medical services and goods—and the critical inputs needed to manufacture them—improve quality and variety, and reduce costs. However, excessive concentration of production, restrictive trade policies, supply chain disruptions, and regulatory divergence can jeopardize the ability of public health systems to respond to pandemics and other health crises. Trade Therapy: Deepening Cooperation to Strengthen Pandemic Defenses, coordinated by Nadia Rocha and Michele Ruta at the World Bank and Marc Bacchetta and Joscelyn Magdeleine at the World Trade Organization, provides new data on trade in medical goods and services and medical value chains, surveys the evolving policy landscape before and during the pandemic, and proposes an action plan to improve trade policies and deepen international cooperation to deal with future pandemics. As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers, the focus of policy action is on the response, which includes actions aimed at removing bottlenecks and providing government support to promote equitable access to vaccines. As the emergency subsides, the focus should shift to prevention and preparedness. Steps to close information gaps—building on the Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19, the ACT-Accelerator, and the open markets, for example—by negotiating tariff reductions on medical goods and greater market access in services should take priority. Also important are measures to improve the efficiency of markets, which include harmonizing regulation through mutual recognition or equivalence of standards and creating international standards for essential medical goods, inputs, and production processes. Agreement on a crisis rulebook to be deployed during an emergency—including clear and agreed limits on export policy flexibility and shared rules on intellectual property flexibilities—would provide a more solid policy foundation to address future challenges.

Narrowing the Channel

Narrowing the Channel PDF Author: Robert Gulotty
Publisher: Chicago International and Domestic Institutions
ISBN: 022666936X
Category : Globalization
Languages : en
Pages : 240

View

Book Description
While large, multinational corporations have supported the removal of tariffs, behind the scenes these firms have fought for protection in the form of product regulations, including testing, labeling, and registration requirements. Unlike tariffs, these regulations can raise fixed costs, excluding smaller firms from the market and shifting profits toward global giants. Narrowing the Channel demonstrates that globalization and globalized firms can paradoxically hinder rather than foster economic cooperation as larger firms seek to protect their markets through often unnecessarily strict product regulations. To illustrate the problem of regulatory protectionism, Robert Gulotty offers an in-depth analysis of contemporary rulemaking in the United States and the European Union in the areas of health, safety, and environmental standards. He shows how large firms seek regulatory schemes that disproportionately disadvantage small firms. When multinationals are embedded in the local economy, governments too have an incentive to use these regulations to shift profits back home. Today, the key challenge to governing global trade is not how much trade occurs but who is allowed to participate, and this book shows that new rules will be needed to allow governments to widen the benefits of global commerce and avoid further inequality and market concentration.