Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song PDF Author: Rachel May Golden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190948620
Category : Music
Languages : en
Pages : 272

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Book Description
In medieval Occitania (southern France), troubadours and monastic creators fostered a vibrant musical culture. In response to the early Crusade campaigns of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Christians of the region turned to producing monophonic, poetic song, encompassing both secular and sacred genres. These works assert shifting regional identities and worldviews, exploring devotional practices and religious beliefs, overlaid with notions of contemporaneous geopolitics and secular, intellectual interests. Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song demonstrates the profound impact the Crusades had on two seemingly discrete musical-poetic practices: the Latin, sacred Aquitanian versus, associated with Christian devotion, and the vernacular troubadour lyric, associated with courtly love. Rachel May Golden investigates how such Crusade songs distinctively arose out of their geographic environment, uncovering intersections between the beginning of Holy War and the emergence of new styles of poetic-musical composition. She brings together sacred and secular genres of the region to reveal the inventiveness of new composition and the imaginative scope of the Crusades within medieval culture. These songs reflect both the outer world and interior lives, and often their conjunction, giving shape and expression to concerns with the Occitanian homeland, spatial aspects of the Crusades, and newly emerging positions within socio-political history. Drawing on approaches from cultural geography, literary studies, and musicology, Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song provides a timely perspective on geopolitical and cultural interactions between nations.

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song PDF Author: Rachel May Golden
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190948612
Category : Music
Languages : en
Pages : 308

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Book Description
"In his song, Lanqan li jorn, the early-twelfth-century troubadour Jaufre Rudel expresses a sense of wonder and uncertainty about the future, one that he maps onto his perception of geography as complex, interwoven, and often unknowable. The song proclaims Jaufre's intention to travel eastward to the Crusade front as a Christian pilgrim, and to unite there with his beloved Lady (generally understood as the Countess of Tripoli), the object of his amor de loing [love from afar]. Jaufre expresses both ambivalence and a sense of possibility as he prepares to depart outremar. In Jaufre's ideology, distance suggests the multivalent difficulties inherent in this effort--the challenges of geographical travels and unknown roads; the emotional separation between lovers and uncertain pathways; and the subjective distances between the ideals of French courtliness, Christian values, and his imagining of the land of Saracens. Because the pathways that lie before him--the ports and roads--are so many and so unfathomable, Jaufre cannot prophesy the outcome of this journey. As Jaufre contemplated the unknown East, he could not have predicted the impact of the Crusade efforts or the song-making traditions in which he participated. According to his vida, or biographical sketch (although these were often fictionalized), Jaufre would die in the East while on the Crusade venture; having often imagined the Countess of Tripoli, he would become ill on the journey, arriving in the Syrian county only just in time to be embraced his beloved and die in her arms. Jaufre was one of many creators of the Crusade period to contemplate a new world, one marked by Crusading, through song. In doing so, he employed geographical rhetoric in ways that engaged his belief systems about love, politics, religion, and space. In this book, I locate ideologies of early Crusade culture as expressed in the Occitanian song (in the south of modern-day France), particularly in Latin devotional song and troubadour lyric. Such songs engage their Crusading context through text and melody, through metaphors of travel, distance, and geography. I argue that these songs reflect Crusade perspectives, articulate regional beliefs and local identities, and demonstrate the rhetorical and expressive possibilities of music and poetry in combination. Today, in keeping with the concepts of mouvance and re-invention, as articulated by Paul Zumthor and Amelia Van Vleck among others, we understand troubadour song as a site of re-creation rather than fixity. Troubadour songs circulated abundantly in oral transmission, long before they were committed to writing; each performance of a given song was subject to change and reinvention, with performance acting not as repetition, but as an act of re-composition, improvisation, or variation, aided, but not dictated, by memory. Troubadour songs may exist in multiple variant copies across multiple manuscripts, or they may survive today without any written record of their melodies at all, perhaps once so well known that their notation was not needed. Zumthor thus explained, "the 'work' floats, offering not a fixed shape of firm boundaries but a constantly shifting nimbus . . . Although the production of an individual, it [a song] is characterized by the sense of potential incompleteness is caries within itself." As he looked forward uncertainly into his own travels and his future, Jaufre understood his songs as fluid, as templates for further composition, and as sites of communal, rather than individual, creation. Indeed, among the troubadours, Jaufre can be considered an "extremist" (in the words of Amelia Van Vleck) with regard to transmission and re-composition, as he was particularly explicit about inviting others to change and improve upon his song, placing the singer on par with the composer as a creative agent, and rejecting the idea of single or original author with respect to his work. For Jaufre, the audience too played a role in defining the song; the experience of reception essentially contributed to the process of re-creation. Thus Rupert Pickens wrote, regarding his edition of Jaufre's poems: "It soon became apparent . . . that not only can 'authentic' texts not be discovered, much less 'established' . . . but that, given the condition of the manuscripts and the esthetic principles involving textual integrity affirmed by Jaufre himself . . . the question of 'authenticity' . . . was largely irrelevant.""--

Gender and Voice in Medieval French Literature and Song

Gender and Voice in Medieval French Literature and Song PDF Author: Rachel May Golden
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780813069036
Category : LITERARY CRITICISM
Languages : en
Pages : 310

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Book Description
This volume brings together literary and musical compositions of medieval France, identifying the use of voice in these works as a way of articulating gendered identities.

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song PDF Author: Rachel May Golden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190948620
Category : Music
Languages : en
Pages : 272

View

Book Description
In medieval Occitania (southern France), troubadours and monastic creators fostered a vibrant musical culture. In response to the early Crusade campaigns of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Christians of the region turned to producing monophonic, poetic song, encompassing both secular and sacred genres. These works assert shifting regional identities and worldviews, exploring devotional practices and religious beliefs, overlaid with notions of contemporaneous geopolitics and secular, intellectual interests. Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song demonstrates the profound impact the Crusades had on two seemingly discrete musical-poetic practices: the Latin, sacred Aquitanian versus, associated with Christian devotion, and the vernacular troubadour lyric, associated with courtly love. Rachel May Golden investigates how such Crusade songs distinctively arose out of their geographic environment, uncovering intersections between the beginning of Holy War and the emergence of new styles of poetic-musical composition. She brings together sacred and secular genres of the region to reveal the inventiveness of new composition and the imaginative scope of the Crusades within medieval culture. These songs reflect both the outer world and interior lives, and often their conjunction, giving shape and expression to concerns with the Occitanian homeland, spatial aspects of the Crusades, and newly emerging positions within socio-political history. Drawing on approaches from cultural geography, literary studies, and musicology, Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song provides a timely perspective on geopolitical and cultural interactions between nations.

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song

Mapping Medieval Identities in Occitanian Crusade Song PDF Author: Rachel May Golden
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190948612
Category : Music
Languages : en
Pages : 308

View

Book Description
"In his song, Lanqan li jorn, the early-twelfth-century troubadour Jaufre Rudel expresses a sense of wonder and uncertainty about the future, one that he maps onto his perception of geography as complex, interwoven, and often unknowable. The song proclaims Jaufre's intention to travel eastward to the Crusade front as a Christian pilgrim, and to unite there with his beloved Lady (generally understood as the Countess of Tripoli), the object of his amor de loing [love from afar]. Jaufre expresses both ambivalence and a sense of possibility as he prepares to depart outremar. In Jaufre's ideology, distance suggests the multivalent difficulties inherent in this effort--the challenges of geographical travels and unknown roads; the emotional separation between lovers and uncertain pathways; and the subjective distances between the ideals of French courtliness, Christian values, and his imagining of the land of Saracens. Because the pathways that lie before him--the ports and roads--are so many and so unfathomable, Jaufre cannot prophesy the outcome of this journey. As Jaufre contemplated the unknown East, he could not have predicted the impact of the Crusade efforts or the song-making traditions in which he participated. According to his vida, or biographical sketch (although these were often fictionalized), Jaufre would die in the East while on the Crusade venture; having often imagined the Countess of Tripoli, he would become ill on the journey, arriving in the Syrian county only just in time to be embraced his beloved and die in her arms. Jaufre was one of many creators of the Crusade period to contemplate a new world, one marked by Crusading, through song. In doing so, he employed geographical rhetoric in ways that engaged his belief systems about love, politics, religion, and space. In this book, I locate ideologies of early Crusade culture as expressed in the Occitanian song (in the south of modern-day France), particularly in Latin devotional song and troubadour lyric. Such songs engage their Crusading context through text and melody, through metaphors of travel, distance, and geography. I argue that these songs reflect Crusade perspectives, articulate regional beliefs and local identities, and demonstrate the rhetorical and expressive possibilities of music and poetry in combination. Today, in keeping with the concepts of mouvance and re-invention, as articulated by Paul Zumthor and Amelia Van Vleck among others, we understand troubadour song as a site of re-creation rather than fixity. Troubadour songs circulated abundantly in oral transmission, long before they were committed to writing; each performance of a given song was subject to change and reinvention, with performance acting not as repetition, but as an act of re-composition, improvisation, or variation, aided, but not dictated, by memory. Troubadour songs may exist in multiple variant copies across multiple manuscripts, or they may survive today without any written record of their melodies at all, perhaps once so well known that their notation was not needed. Zumthor thus explained, "the 'work' floats, offering not a fixed shape of firm boundaries but a constantly shifting nimbus . . . Although the production of an individual, it [a song] is characterized by the sense of potential incompleteness is caries within itself." As he looked forward uncertainly into his own travels and his future, Jaufre understood his songs as fluid, as templates for further composition, and as sites of communal, rather than individual, creation. Indeed, among the troubadours, Jaufre can be considered an "extremist" (in the words of Amelia Van Vleck) with regard to transmission and re-composition, as he was particularly explicit about inviting others to change and improve upon his song, placing the singer on par with the composer as a creative agent, and rejecting the idea of single or original author with respect to his work. For Jaufre, the audience too played a role in defining the song; the experience of reception essentially contributed to the process of re-creation. Thus Rupert Pickens wrote, regarding his edition of Jaufre's poems: "It soon became apparent . . . that not only can 'authentic' texts not be discovered, much less 'established' . . . but that, given the condition of the manuscripts and the esthetic principles involving textual integrity affirmed by Jaufre himself . . . the question of 'authenticity' . . . was largely irrelevant.""--

Gender and Voice in Medieval French Literature and Song

Gender and Voice in Medieval French Literature and Song PDF Author: Rachel May Golden
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780813069036
Category : LITERARY CRITICISM
Languages : en
Pages : 310

View

Book Description
This volume brings together literary and musical compositions of medieval France, identifying the use of voice in these works as a way of articulating gendered identities.

The Occitan War

The Occitan War PDF Author: Laurence W. Marvin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521872409
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 356

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Book Description
In 1209 Simon of Montfort led a war against the Cathars of Languedoc after Pope Innocent III preached a crusade condemning them as heretics. The suppression of heresy became a pretext for a vicious war that remains largely unstudied as a military conflict. Laurence Marvin here examines the Albigensian Crusade as military and political history rather than religious history and traces these dimensions of the conflict through to Montfort's death in 1218. He shows how Montfort experienced military success in spite of a hostile populace, impossible military targets, armies that dissolved every forty days, and a pope who often failed to support the crusade morally or financially. He also discusses the supposed brutality of the war, why the inhabitants were for so long unsuccessful at defending themselves against it, and its impact on Occitania. This original account will appeal to scholars of medieval France, the Crusades and medieval military history.

Festschrift Rudolf Bockholdt zum 60. Geburtstag

Festschrift Rudolf Bockholdt zum 60. Geburtstag PDF Author: Norbert Dubowy
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Arts
Languages : de
Pages : 428

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Book Description


Medieval Boundaries

Medieval Boundaries PDF Author: Sharon Kinoshita
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812239199
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 312

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Book Description
In Medieval Boundaries, Sharon Kinoshita examines the role of cross-cultural contact in twelfth- and early thirteenth-century French literature. Starting from the observation that many of the earliest and best-known works of the French literary tradition are set on or beyond the borders of the French-speaking world, she reads the Chanson de Roland, the lais of Marie de France, and a variety of other texts in an expanded geographical frame that includes the Iberian peninsula, the Welsh marches, and the eastern Mediterranean. In Kinoshita's reconceptualization of the geographical and cultural boundaries of the medieval West, such places become significant not only as sites of conflict but also as spaces of intense political, economic, and cultural negotiation. An important contribution to the emerging field of medieval postcolonialism, Kinoshita's work explores the limitations of reading the literature of the French Middle Ages as an inevitable link in the historical construction of modern discourses of Orientalism, colonialism, race, and Christian-Muslim conflict. Rather, drawing on recent historical and art historical scholarship, Kinoshita uncovers a vernacular culture at odds with official discourses of crusade and conquest. Situating each work in its specific context, she brings to light the lived experiences of the knights and nobles for whom this literature was first composed and—in a series of close readings informed by postcolonial and feminist theory—demonstrates that literary representations of cultural encounters often provided the pretext for questioning the most basic categories of medieval identity. Awarded honorable mention for the 2007 Modern Language Association Aldo and Jeanne Scaglione Prize for French and Francophone Studies

The Music of the Troubadours

The Music of the Troubadours PDF Author: Elizabeth Aubrey
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Music
Languages : en
Pages : 326

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Book Description
The Music of the Troubadours is the first comprehensive critical study of the 315 extant melodies of the troubadours of Occitania in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. It begins with an overview of the social and political milieu of the late medieval Mediterranean world, along with brief biographies of the 42 troubadours whose music survives. Elizabeth Aubrey then describes in detail the four manuscripts that transmit this music, and her analysis of scribal procedures shows the overlapping roles of composers, singers, and scribes. Music and poetry complemented each other. Aubrey examines the medieval poetic traditions within which the troubadours composed, including discussions of genre, versification, and poetic style. Through an in-depth analysis of the forms and styles of the melodies, she identifies musical traits of certain composers and offers a broad view of the chronological development of the music. She also discusses issues of performance practice, such as rhythm, the use of instruments, chromatic inflections, and ornamentation, to aid today's musicians in recreating these timeless and beautiful songs.

Spoken and Written Language

Spoken and Written Language PDF Author: Mary Garrison
Publisher: Brepols Pub
ISBN: 9782503507705
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 364

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Book Description
The linguistic situation of medieval Europe has sometimes been characterized as one of diglossia: one learned language, Latin, was used for religion, law, and documents, while the various vernaculars were used in other linguistic registers. Informing the relationship between Latin and the vernaculars was the choice of Latin as the language of the Western Roman Empire and the Roman Church. This choice entailed the possibility of a shared literary culture and heritage across Europe, but also had consequences for access to that heritage. Scholarship on the Romance languages has contested the relevance of the term diglossia, and the divergence between written or spoken Latin and Romance is a subject of energetic debate. In other linguistic areas, too, questions have been voiced. How can one characterize the interaction between Latin and the various vernaculars, and between the various vernaculars themselves? To what extent could speakers from separate linguistic worlds communicate? These questions are fundamental for anyone concerned with communication, the transmission of learning, literary history, and cultural interaction in the Middle Ages. This volume contains contributions by historians, cultural historians, and students of texts, language, and linguistics, addressing the subject from their various perspectives but at the same time trying to overcome familiar disciplinary divisions.

The Songs of Peire Vidal

The Songs of Peire Vidal PDF Author: Peire Vidal
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 9780820479224
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 259

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Book Description
Peire Vidal, one of the most celebrated of the Occitan troubadours, was a favorite performer at the courts of France, Spain, Italy, Malta, and Palestine during the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. His witty and humorous love-songs and satires provide a fascinating insight into the courtly society of his times. This book includes the first English translation and commentary of the complete works of Peire Vidal. It is a useful and accessible text for students and specialists of medieval literature.

Gender and Genre in Medieval French Literature

Gender and Genre in Medieval French Literature PDF Author: Simon Gaunt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521464943
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 372

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Book Description
Wide-ranging study of gender and the underlying ideologies of Old French and Occitan literature.