Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression PDF Author: Kevin V. Morris
Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press
ISBN: 9781904455943
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

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Book Description
Non-coding RNAs potentially play an active role in modulating gene transcription and epigenetic states. Several genes in differentiated cells may be under some form of RNA-based transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory control. This form of regulation may be controlled by selective pressures and influence the adaptability of the cell. The concept that RNA can control epigenetic states impacts our understanding of the basic fabric of the cell and may have therapeutic potential. Many studies have been carried out on the modulation of gene transcription by non-coding RNAs. This book, written by a group of distinguished scientists, represents an important overview and summary of the field to date. The 13 chapters are organized into three sections: a) Non-coding RNAs: Form, Function and Diversity; b) Non-coding RNAs: Gene Regulation and Epigenetics; and c) Non-coding RNAs: Disease and Therapeutics. This up-to-date volume is an essential book for those working in the area and represents a major information resource on current research in the fast-moving fields of epigenetics, the regulation of gene expression, and RNA research.

Molecular Biology of Long Non-coding RNAs

Molecular Biology of Long Non-coding RNAs PDF Author: Ahmad M. Khalil
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030170861
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 187

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Book Description
This second edition shows how long non-coding RNAs (lnc)RNAs have emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified and observed in a wide range of organisms. Unlike mRNA, lncRNA have no protein-coding capacity. So, while their function is not entirely clear, they may serve as key organizers of protein complexes that allow for higher order regulatory events. Advances in the field also include better characterization of human long non-coding RNAs, novel insights into their roles in human development and disease, their diverse mechanisms of action and novel technologies to study them.

Epigenetics: Development and Disease

Epigenetics: Development and Disease PDF Author: Tapas Kumar Kundu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745257
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 689

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Book Description
Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.

The Chemical Biology of Long Noncoding RNAs

The Chemical Biology of Long Noncoding RNAs PDF Author: Stefan Jurga
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303044743X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 545

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Book Description
This book offers a comprehensive and detailed overview of various aspects of long non-coding RNAs. It discusses their emerging significance in molecular medicine, ranging from human cancers to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Transcriptomic studies have demonstrated that the majority of genomes found in complex organisms are expressed in highly dynamic and cell-specific patterns, producing huge numbers of intergenic, antisense and intronic long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified, and unlike mRNA, they have no protein-coding capacity. A large repertoire of ncRNAs, actively transcribed from the mammalian genome, control diverse cellular processes, both in terms of development and diseases, through a variety of gene regulatory mechanisms. IncRNAs have emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Given its scope, the book will be of particular interest to molecular, chemical, cell and developmental biologists, as well as specialists in translational medicine involved in disease-oriented research. It also offers a valuable resource for in silico experts seeking a deeper understanding of lncRNA expression and function through computational analysis of the NGS data.

The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Pediatric Cancers

The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Pediatric Cancers PDF Author: Araba Sagoe-Wagner
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
Emerging studies into long non-coding RNAs in cancers continue to implicate these molecules in roles crucial to tumourigenesis and progression of cancers. Long non-coding RNAs are transcripts greater than 200bp that do not code for protein but have been found to regulate gene expression. Given the extensive knowledge of mutations in the genome that could account for pediatric cancers in children, there is a need for a greater understanding of epigenetic regulation and the epigenome of osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma. LncRNAs contribute to epigenetics, thus these transcripts could also influence the cancers via epigenetic mechanisms. This thesis therefore aims to identify differentially expressed long non-coding RNA in neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma that may have roles which could serve as potential targets in therapeutics. Our findings reveal long non-coding RNAs LINC00261, LINC01133, LINC01268 and LINC01139 that are differentially expressed and could have potential roles in the progression of the disease.

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

Epigenetics in Health and Disease PDF Author: Igor Kovalchuk
Publisher: FT Press
ISBN: 0132599511
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 608

Get Book

Book Description
This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and easy-to-understand introduction to modern epigenetics. Authored by two active researchers in the field, it introduces key concepts one step at a time, enabling students at all levels to benefit from it. The authors begin by presenting a historical overview that places epigenetics in context, and makes it clear that the field is not (as some presume) completely new. Next, they introduce and explain key epigenetic mechanisms, and discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, organism development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of individual organisms with their environments. Coverage includes: non-coding RNAs in each kingdom; allelic interactions; CRYSPR; gene silencing; epigenetics of germline and epigenetic memory; epigenetic regulation of genome stability and plant stress response; and much more. The authors conclude by offering significant new insights into how knowledge of epigenetics and epigenomics may promote the development of technologies and solutions in areas ranging from behavioral neuroscience to cancer treatment, toxicology to the development of hardier crops.

Regulation by non-coding RNAs Volume 1

Regulation by non-coding RNAs Volume 1 PDF Author: Nicholas Delihas
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038420050
Category : Non-coding RNA.
Languages : en
Pages : 850

Get Book

Book Description
Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in IJMS

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery, Development and Treatment

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery, Development and Treatment PDF Author: Shibashish Giri
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889639320
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

Get Book

Book Description
Establishment of a normal phenotype involves dynamic epigenetic regulation of gene expression that when affected contributes to human diseases. On a molecular level, epigenetic regulation is marked by specific covalent modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, PARylation and ubiquitylation) of DNA and its associated histones. Studies also suggest the influence of such epigenetic modifications on non-coding RNA expression implicated in normal and diseased phenotypes. Epigenetic control of genetic expression is a reversible process essential for normal development and function of an organism. Alteration of epigenetic regulation leads to various disease forms such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Assessing these alterations provides a deeper insight into the changes induced in the genome, which is often informative for identifying disease subtypes or developing suitable treatments. Therefore, epigenetics proves to be a key area of clinical investigation in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases. Genetic mutations, environmental stress, pathogens and drugs of abuse are some of the predominant factors that induce and impact changes on chromatin, which directly dictate a diseased phenotype. It is essential to consider the interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors to understand the molecular mechanisms of complex human diseases for safer and efficient drug development. Furthermore, genetic variation in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes is insufficient to account for interindividual variability of drug response. Therefore, current efforts aim to identify epigenetic components of ADME gene regulation, which include phase-I and phase-II enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters and nuclear receptors involved in regulation of ADME genes. Monitoring circulatory epigenetic biomarkers in liquid biopsies (blood, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) of disease-associated and drug-associated epigenetic alterations may prove useful for decision support for routine clinical treatment and drug discovery. Hence, recent drug discovery efforts on targeting the epigenome, has emerged an area of interest with several new drugs being developed, tested and some already approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These new insights into the complexities of epigenetic regulation are key contributors to our basic understanding of this process in human health and disease, which will provide scope for innovative drug therapies. It is of urgency to aid the present understanding of epigenomics driven diseased outcomes, with the expectation that further studies will identify early markers of disease and targets for therapeutics.

Cancer RNome: Nature & Evolution

Cancer RNome: Nature & Evolution PDF Author: Mansi Arora
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981131568X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 313

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Book Description
In the last decade, researchers working in the field of cancer biology have shifted their focus from genetic defects to epigenetic dysregulation, especially that of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This book encompasses a comprehensive review of the transcriptional landscape of the cell and its involvement in the cancer pathophysiology. The first two chapters elucidate the basics of biosynthesis, mechanism of action and modulation of the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by coding as well as non-coding RNAs. The third chapter discusses the aberrant expression of the cellular RNome in the cancer cells and highlights its role in the orchestration of processes involved in evolution as well as the sustenance of cancer cells. The fourth chapter describes the recent advances in the field of translating the transcriptome into diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and as targets for novel anti-cancer therapies. The final chapter then reviews the emerging experimental approaches to screen, identify and explore the functions of ncRNAs. Providing valuable insights into the field of RNome in the context of cancer, this book is helpful to students, researchers and clinicians..

Long Non-Coding RNAs

Long Non-Coding RNAs PDF Author: Durdica Ugarkovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642165028
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 208

Get Book

Book Description
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), tentatively defined as ncRNAs of more than two hundred nucleotides in length, are characterized by the complexity and diversity of their sequences and mechanisms of action. Based on genome-wide studies, more than 3,300 of them exist, but to date only the limited number of functional lncRNAs have been identified and characterized. Nonetheless, lncRNAs have emerged as key molecules involved in the control of transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulatory pathways. They take part in the recruitment of chromatin modifying complexes and regulate splicing, localization, stability and translation of the target mRNAs. This book provides an overview of the rapidly advancing field of long ncRNAs, describing the epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which they regulate various biological functions in model systems, from yeast to mammals. The role of ncRNAs in sex chromosome dosage compensation in flies and mammals is described, as well as their role in centromere and telomere biology. Long non-coding RNAs involved in environmental stress response and development are presented and their mechanisms of action discussed.

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Non-coding RNAs and Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression PDF Author: Kevin V. Morris
Publisher: Horizon Scientific Press
ISBN: 9781904455943
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 216

View

Book Description
Non-coding RNAs potentially play an active role in modulating gene transcription and epigenetic states. Several genes in differentiated cells may be under some form of RNA-based transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory control. This form of regulation may be controlled by selective pressures and influence the adaptability of the cell. The concept that RNA can control epigenetic states impacts our understanding of the basic fabric of the cell and may have therapeutic potential. Many studies have been carried out on the modulation of gene transcription by non-coding RNAs. This book, written by a group of distinguished scientists, represents an important overview and summary of the field to date. The 13 chapters are organized into three sections: a) Non-coding RNAs: Form, Function and Diversity; b) Non-coding RNAs: Gene Regulation and Epigenetics; and c) Non-coding RNAs: Disease and Therapeutics. This up-to-date volume is an essential book for those working in the area and represents a major information resource on current research in the fast-moving fields of epigenetics, the regulation of gene expression, and RNA research.

Molecular Biology of Long Non-coding RNAs

Molecular Biology of Long Non-coding RNAs PDF Author: Ahmad M. Khalil
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030170861
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 187

View

Book Description
This second edition shows how long non-coding RNAs (lnc)RNAs have emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified and observed in a wide range of organisms. Unlike mRNA, lncRNA have no protein-coding capacity. So, while their function is not entirely clear, they may serve as key organizers of protein complexes that allow for higher order regulatory events. Advances in the field also include better characterization of human long non-coding RNAs, novel insights into their roles in human development and disease, their diverse mechanisms of action and novel technologies to study them.

Epigenetics: Development and Disease

Epigenetics: Development and Disease PDF Author: Tapas Kumar Kundu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745257
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 689

View

Book Description
Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.

The Chemical Biology of Long Noncoding RNAs

The Chemical Biology of Long Noncoding RNAs PDF Author: Stefan Jurga
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303044743X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 545

View

Book Description
This book offers a comprehensive and detailed overview of various aspects of long non-coding RNAs. It discusses their emerging significance in molecular medicine, ranging from human cancers to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Transcriptomic studies have demonstrated that the majority of genomes found in complex organisms are expressed in highly dynamic and cell-specific patterns, producing huge numbers of intergenic, antisense and intronic long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified, and unlike mRNA, they have no protein-coding capacity. A large repertoire of ncRNAs, actively transcribed from the mammalian genome, control diverse cellular processes, both in terms of development and diseases, through a variety of gene regulatory mechanisms. IncRNAs have emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Given its scope, the book will be of particular interest to molecular, chemical, cell and developmental biologists, as well as specialists in translational medicine involved in disease-oriented research. It also offers a valuable resource for in silico experts seeking a deeper understanding of lncRNA expression and function through computational analysis of the NGS data.

The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Pediatric Cancers

The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Pediatric Cancers PDF Author: Araba Sagoe-Wagner
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
Emerging studies into long non-coding RNAs in cancers continue to implicate these molecules in roles crucial to tumourigenesis and progression of cancers. Long non-coding RNAs are transcripts greater than 200bp that do not code for protein but have been found to regulate gene expression. Given the extensive knowledge of mutations in the genome that could account for pediatric cancers in children, there is a need for a greater understanding of epigenetic regulation and the epigenome of osteosarcoma and neuroblastoma. LncRNAs contribute to epigenetics, thus these transcripts could also influence the cancers via epigenetic mechanisms. This thesis therefore aims to identify differentially expressed long non-coding RNA in neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma that may have roles which could serve as potential targets in therapeutics. Our findings reveal long non-coding RNAs LINC00261, LINC01133, LINC01268 and LINC01139 that are differentially expressed and could have potential roles in the progression of the disease.

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

Epigenetics in Health and Disease PDF Author: Igor Kovalchuk
Publisher: FT Press
ISBN: 0132599511
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 608

View

Book Description
This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and easy-to-understand introduction to modern epigenetics. Authored by two active researchers in the field, it introduces key concepts one step at a time, enabling students at all levels to benefit from it. The authors begin by presenting a historical overview that places epigenetics in context, and makes it clear that the field is not (as some presume) completely new. Next, they introduce and explain key epigenetic mechanisms, and discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, organism development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interaction of individual organisms with their environments. Coverage includes: non-coding RNAs in each kingdom; allelic interactions; CRYSPR; gene silencing; epigenetics of germline and epigenetic memory; epigenetic regulation of genome stability and plant stress response; and much more. The authors conclude by offering significant new insights into how knowledge of epigenetics and epigenomics may promote the development of technologies and solutions in areas ranging from behavioral neuroscience to cancer treatment, toxicology to the development of hardier crops.

Regulation by non-coding RNAs Volume 1

Regulation by non-coding RNAs Volume 1 PDF Author: Nicholas Delihas
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038420050
Category : Non-coding RNA.
Languages : en
Pages : 850

View

Book Description
Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in IJMS

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery, Development and Treatment

Epigenetic Approaches in Drug Discovery, Development and Treatment PDF Author: Shibashish Giri
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889639320
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

View

Book Description
Establishment of a normal phenotype involves dynamic epigenetic regulation of gene expression that when affected contributes to human diseases. On a molecular level, epigenetic regulation is marked by specific covalent modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, PARylation and ubiquitylation) of DNA and its associated histones. Studies also suggest the influence of such epigenetic modifications on non-coding RNA expression implicated in normal and diseased phenotypes. Epigenetic control of genetic expression is a reversible process essential for normal development and function of an organism. Alteration of epigenetic regulation leads to various disease forms such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Assessing these alterations provides a deeper insight into the changes induced in the genome, which is often informative for identifying disease subtypes or developing suitable treatments. Therefore, epigenetics proves to be a key area of clinical investigation in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases. Genetic mutations, environmental stress, pathogens and drugs of abuse are some of the predominant factors that induce and impact changes on chromatin, which directly dictate a diseased phenotype. It is essential to consider the interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors to understand the molecular mechanisms of complex human diseases for safer and efficient drug development. Furthermore, genetic variation in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes is insufficient to account for interindividual variability of drug response. Therefore, current efforts aim to identify epigenetic components of ADME gene regulation, which include phase-I and phase-II enzymes, uptake transporters, efflux transporters and nuclear receptors involved in regulation of ADME genes. Monitoring circulatory epigenetic biomarkers in liquid biopsies (blood, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) of disease-associated and drug-associated epigenetic alterations may prove useful for decision support for routine clinical treatment and drug discovery. Hence, recent drug discovery efforts on targeting the epigenome, has emerged an area of interest with several new drugs being developed, tested and some already approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These new insights into the complexities of epigenetic regulation are key contributors to our basic understanding of this process in human health and disease, which will provide scope for innovative drug therapies. It is of urgency to aid the present understanding of epigenomics driven diseased outcomes, with the expectation that further studies will identify early markers of disease and targets for therapeutics.

Cancer RNome: Nature & Evolution

Cancer RNome: Nature & Evolution PDF Author: Mansi Arora
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981131568X
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 313

View

Book Description
In the last decade, researchers working in the field of cancer biology have shifted their focus from genetic defects to epigenetic dysregulation, especially that of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This book encompasses a comprehensive review of the transcriptional landscape of the cell and its involvement in the cancer pathophysiology. The first two chapters elucidate the basics of biosynthesis, mechanism of action and modulation of the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by coding as well as non-coding RNAs. The third chapter discusses the aberrant expression of the cellular RNome in the cancer cells and highlights its role in the orchestration of processes involved in evolution as well as the sustenance of cancer cells. The fourth chapter describes the recent advances in the field of translating the transcriptome into diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and as targets for novel anti-cancer therapies. The final chapter then reviews the emerging experimental approaches to screen, identify and explore the functions of ncRNAs. Providing valuable insights into the field of RNome in the context of cancer, this book is helpful to students, researchers and clinicians..

Long Non-Coding RNAs

Long Non-Coding RNAs PDF Author: Durdica Ugarkovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642165028
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 208

View

Book Description
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), tentatively defined as ncRNAs of more than two hundred nucleotides in length, are characterized by the complexity and diversity of their sequences and mechanisms of action. Based on genome-wide studies, more than 3,300 of them exist, but to date only the limited number of functional lncRNAs have been identified and characterized. Nonetheless, lncRNAs have emerged as key molecules involved in the control of transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulatory pathways. They take part in the recruitment of chromatin modifying complexes and regulate splicing, localization, stability and translation of the target mRNAs. This book provides an overview of the rapidly advancing field of long ncRNAs, describing the epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which they regulate various biological functions in model systems, from yeast to mammals. The role of ncRNAs in sex chromosome dosage compensation in flies and mammals is described, as well as their role in centromere and telomere biology. Long non-coding RNAs involved in environmental stress response and development are presented and their mechanisms of action discussed.