Picturing the Wolf in Children's Literature

Picturing the Wolf in Children's Literature PDF Author: Debra Mitts-Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135765715
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 202

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Book Description
From the villainous beast of “Little Red Riding Hood” and “The Three Little Pigs,” to the nurturing wolves of Romulus and Remus and Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book, the wolf has long been a part of the landscape of children’s literature. Meanwhile, since the 1960s and the popularization of scientific research on these animals, children’s books have begun to feature more nuanced views. In Picturing the Wolf in Children’s Literature, Mitts-Smith analyzes visual images of the wolf in children’s books published in Western Europe and North America from 1500 to the present. In particular, she considers how wolves are depicted in and across particular works, the values and attitudes that inform these depictions, and how the concept of the wolf has changed over time. What she discovers is that illustrations and photos in works for children impart social, cultural, and scientific information not only about wolves, but also about humans and human behavior. First encountered in childhood, picture books act as a training ground where the young learn both how to decode the “symbolic” wolf across various contexts and how to make sense of “real” wolves. Mitts-Smith studies sources including myths, legends, fables, folk and fairy tales, fractured tales, fictional stories, and nonfiction, highlighting those instances in which images play a major role, including illustrated anthologies, chapbooks, picture books, and informational books. This book will be of interest to children’s literature scholars, as well as those interested in the figure of the wolf and how it has been informed over time.

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks PDF Author: Janet Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317631609
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 356

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Book Description
It is often assumed that picturebooks are for very young readers because of their emphasis on the illustrations and their scarcity of text; however, there are increasing numbers of picturebooks where the age of the implied reader is questionable. These are picturebooks whose controversial subject matter and unconventional, often unsettling style of illustration challenge the reader, pushing them to question and probe deeper to understand what the book is about. In addition to the book challenging the reader, the reader often challenges the book in an attempt to understand what is being said. These increasingly popular picturebooks work on many different levels; they are truly polysemic and worthy of in-depth analysis. They push the reader to ask questions and in many instances are intrinsically philosophical, often dealing with fundamental life issues. Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks examines these unconventional, non-conformist picturebooks, considering what they are, their audience and their purpose. It also considers: Children’s and adults’ thoughts on these kinds of picturebooks. How challenging and unsettling wordless picturebooks can play with the mind and promote philosophical thought. What creates non-conformity and strangeness ... is it the illustrations and their style, the subject matter or a combination of both? Why certain countries create, promote and accept these picturebooks more than others. Why certain picturebooks are censored and what factors are in play when these decisions are made. The role of publishers in translating and publishing these picturebooks. Children’s creative and critical responses to strange, unsettling and often disturbing visual texts. This inspiring and thought-provoking volume explores the work of a number of highly respected, international picturebook experts and includes an exclusive interview with the legendary Klaus Flugge, Managing Director of Andersen Press, one of the few remaining independent children’s book publishers in England. It is an indispensable reference for all interested in or working with picturebooks, including researchers, students in higher and teacher education, English advisors/inspectors, literacy consultants and classroom teachers.

A Companion to Children's Literature

A Companion to Children's Literature PDF Author: Karen Coats
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119038251
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 496

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Book Description
A COMPANION TO CHILDREN’S LITERATURE A collection of international, up-to-date, and diverse perspectives on children’s literary criticism A Companion to Children’s Literature offers students and scholars studying children’s literature, education, and youth librarianship an incisive and expansive collection of essays that discuss key debates within children’s literature criticism. The thirty-four works included demonstrate a diverse array of perspectives from around the world, introduce emerging scholars to the field of children’s literature criticism, and meaningfully contribute to the scholarly conversation. The essays selected by the editors present a view of children’s literature that encompasses poetry, fiction, folklore, nonfiction, dramatic stage and screen performances, picturebooks, and interactive and digital media. They range from historical overviews to of-the-moment critical theory about children’s books from across the globe. A Companion to Children’s Literature explores some of the earliest works in children’s literature, key developments in the genre from the 20th century, and the latest trends and texts in children’s information books, postmodern fairytales, theatre, plays, and more. This collection also discusses methods for reading children’s literature, from social justice critiques of popular stories to Black critical theory in the context of children’s literary analysis.

New Directions in Picturebook Research

New Directions in Picturebook Research PDF Author: Teresa Colomer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136882782
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 280

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Book Description
In this new collection, children’s literature scholars from twelve different countries contribute to the ongoing debate on the importance of picturebook research, focusing on aesthetic and cognitive aspects of picture books. Contributors take interdisciplinary approaches that integrate different disciplines such as literary studies, art history, linguistics, narratology, cognitive psychology, sociology, memory studies, and picture theory. Topics discussed include intervisuality, twist endings, autobiographical narration, and metaliterary awareness in picturebooks. The essays also examine the narrative challenges of first-person narratives, ellipsis, and frame-breaking in order to consider the importance of mindscape as a new paradigm in picturebook research. Tying picturebook studies to studies in childhood, multimodality, and literacy, this anthology is a representative of the different opportunities for research in this emerging field.

Crossover Picturebooks

Crossover Picturebooks PDF Author: Sandra L. Beckett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136577025
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 398

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Book Description
This book situates the picturebook genre within the widespread international phenomenon of crossover literature, examining an international corpus of picturebooks — including artists’ books, wordless picturebooks, and celebrity picturebooks — that appeal to readers of all ages. Focusing on contemporary picturebooks, Sandra Beckett shows that the picturebook has traditionally been seen as a children’s genre, but in the eyes of many authors, illustrators, and publishers, it is a narrative form that can address any and all age groups. Innovative graphics and formats as well as the creative, often complex dialogue between text and image provide multiple levels of meaning and invite readers of all ages to consider texts that are primarily marketed as children’s books. The interplay of text and image that distinguishes the picturebook from other forms of fiction and makes it a unique art form also makes it the ultimate crossover genre. Crossover picturebooks are often very complex texts that are challenging for adults as well as children. Many are characterized by difficult "adult" themes, genre blending, metafictive discourse, intertextuality, sophisticated graphics, and complex text-image interplay. Exciting experiments with new formats and techniques, as well as novel interactions with new media and technologies have made the picturebook one of the most vibrant and innovative contemporary literary genres, one that seems to know no boundaries. Crossover Picturebooks is a valuable addition to the study of a genre that is gaining increasing recognition and appreciation, and contributes significantly to the field of children’s literature as a whole.

Children's Literature in Action: A Librarian's Guide, 3rd Edition

Children's Literature in Action: A Librarian's Guide, 3rd Edition PDF Author: Sylvia M. Vardell
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440867798
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 348

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Book Description
This practitioner-oriented introduction to literature for children ages 5–12 covers the latest trends, titles, and tools for choosing the best books and materials as well as for planning fun and effective programs and activities. • Includes recommendations and evaluations of digital ebooks, apps, and audiobooks as well as print titles, providing full coverage of today's range of materials for children • Features short essays by top authors and practitioners in the field to give readers expert opinions and guidance • Provides author comments, collaborative activities, featured books, special topics and programs, selected awards and celebrations, historical connections, recommended resources, issues for discussion, relevant professional standards, and assignment suggestions within each chapter • Addresses the most recent professional and curricular standards for elementary school students—a key element of today's education assessment standards

Child Autonomy and Child Governance in Children's Literature

Child Autonomy and Child Governance in Children's Literature PDF Author: Christopher Kelen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317394798
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 240

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Book Description
This book explores representations of child autonomy and self-governance in children’s literature.The idea of child rule and child realms is central to children’s literature, and childhood is frequently represented as a state of being, with children seen as aliens in need of passports to Adultland (and vice versa). In a sense all children’s literature depends on the idea that children are different, separate, and in command of their own imaginative spaces and places. Although the idea of child rule is a persistent theme in discussions of children’s literature (or about children and childhood) the metaphor itself has never been properly unpacked with critical reference to examples from those many texts that are contingent on the authority and/or power of children. Child governance and autonomy can be seen as natural or perverse; it can be displayed as a threat or as a promise. Accordingly, the "child rule"-motif can be seen in Robinsonades and horror films, in philosophical treatises and in series fiction. The representations of self-ruling children are manifold and ambivalent, and range from the idyllic to the nightmarish. Contributors to this volume visit a range of texts in which children are, in various ways, empowered, discussing whether childhood itself may be thought of as a nationality, and what that may imply. This collection shows how representations of child governance have been used for different ideological, aesthetic, and pedagogical reasons, and will appeal to scholars of children’s literature, childhood studies, and cultural studies.

Shadow of a Mouse

Shadow of a Mouse PDF Author: Donald Crafton
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520261038
Category : Performing Arts
Languages : en
Pages : 372

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Book Description
“Donald Crafton, our lively guide, shows us around a Tooniverse populated by performers, not just images, who engage us in all the ways their flesh-and-blood counterparts do, and then some. Taking classical animation as his terrain, Crafton nevertheless pushes ongoing discussions of performance, liveness, and corporeality in the directions in which they need to go if they are to help us describe and navigate our increasingly virtual worlds.” Philip Auslander, author of Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture "Every once in a while a book comes along that marks a transformational point in its discipline. Such a book is Donald Crafton's Shadow of a Mouse. Crafton skillfully draws together theoretical sources, animation history, technological development, and social analysis, deftly weaving together thinkers from Disney to Deleuze and Sito to Stanislavsky. The result is a substantial rethinking of animation that will reshape traditional approaches to the medium. Crafton's magisterial grasp of theory and history is livened by a true fan's passion for the subject and a keen sense of humor. Shadow of a Mouse is a must-read for anyone with an interest in performance, embodiment, popular culture, race, or reception." Mark Langer, Associate Professor of Film Studies, Carleton University

Beyond the Book

Beyond the Book PDF Author: Bridget Carrington
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443855413
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 302

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Book Description
November 2012 saw the joint annual conference of the British branch of the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY UK) and the MA course at the National Centre for Research in Children’s Literature (NCRCL) at Roehampton University. The theme of the conference was the investigation of aspects of literature for children that were ‘Beyond the Book’. From woodcuts to e-books, children’s literature has always lent itself to reinterpretation and expansion. In its early days, this was achieved through different forms of retelling, through illustration and interactive illustration (pop-ups and flaps), and then through music, film, television and stage adaptation. The contributors to the 2012 conference explored the variety of means by which we transform literature intended for children, and celebrated the vibrant world of creativity that has sought, and continues to seek, different ways in which to engage young readers. Bridget Carrington and Jennifer Harding have previously collaborated as the editors of earlier IBBY UK/NCRCL MA conference proceedings: Going Graphic: Comics and Graphic Novels for Young People; Conflicts and Controversies: Challenging Children’s Literature; and It Doesn’t Have to Rhyme: Children and Poetry (Pied Piper Publishing, 2010, 2011, 2012).

Children’s Literature and Intergenerational Relationships

Children’s Literature and Intergenerational Relationships PDF Author: Justyna Deszcz-Tryhubczak
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030677001
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 252

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Book Description
Children’s Literature and Intergenerational Relationships: Encounters of the Playful Kind explores ways in which children’s literature becomes the object and catalyst of play that brings younger and older generations closer to one another. Providing examples from diverse cultural and historical contexts, this collection argues that children’s texts promote intergenerational play through the use of literary devices and graphic formats and that they may prompt joint play practices in the real world. The book offers a distinctive contribution to children’s literature scholarship by shifting critical attention away from the difference and conflict between children and adults to the exploration of inter-age interdependencies as equally crucial aspects of human life, presenting a new perspective for all who research and work with children’s culture in times of global aging.

Picturing the Wolf in Children's Literature

Picturing the Wolf in Children's Literature PDF Author: Debra Mitts-Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135765715
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 202

View

Book Description
From the villainous beast of “Little Red Riding Hood” and “The Three Little Pigs,” to the nurturing wolves of Romulus and Remus and Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book, the wolf has long been a part of the landscape of children’s literature. Meanwhile, since the 1960s and the popularization of scientific research on these animals, children’s books have begun to feature more nuanced views. In Picturing the Wolf in Children’s Literature, Mitts-Smith analyzes visual images of the wolf in children’s books published in Western Europe and North America from 1500 to the present. In particular, she considers how wolves are depicted in and across particular works, the values and attitudes that inform these depictions, and how the concept of the wolf has changed over time. What she discovers is that illustrations and photos in works for children impart social, cultural, and scientific information not only about wolves, but also about humans and human behavior. First encountered in childhood, picture books act as a training ground where the young learn both how to decode the “symbolic” wolf across various contexts and how to make sense of “real” wolves. Mitts-Smith studies sources including myths, legends, fables, folk and fairy tales, fractured tales, fictional stories, and nonfiction, highlighting those instances in which images play a major role, including illustrated anthologies, chapbooks, picture books, and informational books. This book will be of interest to children’s literature scholars, as well as those interested in the figure of the wolf and how it has been informed over time.

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks

Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks PDF Author: Janet Evans
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317631609
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 356

View

Book Description
It is often assumed that picturebooks are for very young readers because of their emphasis on the illustrations and their scarcity of text; however, there are increasing numbers of picturebooks where the age of the implied reader is questionable. These are picturebooks whose controversial subject matter and unconventional, often unsettling style of illustration challenge the reader, pushing them to question and probe deeper to understand what the book is about. In addition to the book challenging the reader, the reader often challenges the book in an attempt to understand what is being said. These increasingly popular picturebooks work on many different levels; they are truly polysemic and worthy of in-depth analysis. They push the reader to ask questions and in many instances are intrinsically philosophical, often dealing with fundamental life issues. Challenging and Controversial Picturebooks examines these unconventional, non-conformist picturebooks, considering what they are, their audience and their purpose. It also considers: Children’s and adults’ thoughts on these kinds of picturebooks. How challenging and unsettling wordless picturebooks can play with the mind and promote philosophical thought. What creates non-conformity and strangeness ... is it the illustrations and their style, the subject matter or a combination of both? Why certain countries create, promote and accept these picturebooks more than others. Why certain picturebooks are censored and what factors are in play when these decisions are made. The role of publishers in translating and publishing these picturebooks. Children’s creative and critical responses to strange, unsettling and often disturbing visual texts. This inspiring and thought-provoking volume explores the work of a number of highly respected, international picturebook experts and includes an exclusive interview with the legendary Klaus Flugge, Managing Director of Andersen Press, one of the few remaining independent children’s book publishers in England. It is an indispensable reference for all interested in or working with picturebooks, including researchers, students in higher and teacher education, English advisors/inspectors, literacy consultants and classroom teachers.

A Companion to Children's Literature

A Companion to Children's Literature PDF Author: Karen Coats
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119038251
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 496

View

Book Description
A COMPANION TO CHILDREN’S LITERATURE A collection of international, up-to-date, and diverse perspectives on children’s literary criticism A Companion to Children’s Literature offers students and scholars studying children’s literature, education, and youth librarianship an incisive and expansive collection of essays that discuss key debates within children’s literature criticism. The thirty-four works included demonstrate a diverse array of perspectives from around the world, introduce emerging scholars to the field of children’s literature criticism, and meaningfully contribute to the scholarly conversation. The essays selected by the editors present a view of children’s literature that encompasses poetry, fiction, folklore, nonfiction, dramatic stage and screen performances, picturebooks, and interactive and digital media. They range from historical overviews to of-the-moment critical theory about children’s books from across the globe. A Companion to Children’s Literature explores some of the earliest works in children’s literature, key developments in the genre from the 20th century, and the latest trends and texts in children’s information books, postmodern fairytales, theatre, plays, and more. This collection also discusses methods for reading children’s literature, from social justice critiques of popular stories to Black critical theory in the context of children’s literary analysis.

New Directions in Picturebook Research

New Directions in Picturebook Research PDF Author: Teresa Colomer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136882782
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 280

View

Book Description
In this new collection, children’s literature scholars from twelve different countries contribute to the ongoing debate on the importance of picturebook research, focusing on aesthetic and cognitive aspects of picture books. Contributors take interdisciplinary approaches that integrate different disciplines such as literary studies, art history, linguistics, narratology, cognitive psychology, sociology, memory studies, and picture theory. Topics discussed include intervisuality, twist endings, autobiographical narration, and metaliterary awareness in picturebooks. The essays also examine the narrative challenges of first-person narratives, ellipsis, and frame-breaking in order to consider the importance of mindscape as a new paradigm in picturebook research. Tying picturebook studies to studies in childhood, multimodality, and literacy, this anthology is a representative of the different opportunities for research in this emerging field.

Crossover Picturebooks

Crossover Picturebooks PDF Author: Sandra L. Beckett
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136577025
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 398

View

Book Description
This book situates the picturebook genre within the widespread international phenomenon of crossover literature, examining an international corpus of picturebooks — including artists’ books, wordless picturebooks, and celebrity picturebooks — that appeal to readers of all ages. Focusing on contemporary picturebooks, Sandra Beckett shows that the picturebook has traditionally been seen as a children’s genre, but in the eyes of many authors, illustrators, and publishers, it is a narrative form that can address any and all age groups. Innovative graphics and formats as well as the creative, often complex dialogue between text and image provide multiple levels of meaning and invite readers of all ages to consider texts that are primarily marketed as children’s books. The interplay of text and image that distinguishes the picturebook from other forms of fiction and makes it a unique art form also makes it the ultimate crossover genre. Crossover picturebooks are often very complex texts that are challenging for adults as well as children. Many are characterized by difficult "adult" themes, genre blending, metafictive discourse, intertextuality, sophisticated graphics, and complex text-image interplay. Exciting experiments with new formats and techniques, as well as novel interactions with new media and technologies have made the picturebook one of the most vibrant and innovative contemporary literary genres, one that seems to know no boundaries. Crossover Picturebooks is a valuable addition to the study of a genre that is gaining increasing recognition and appreciation, and contributes significantly to the field of children’s literature as a whole.

Children's Literature in Action: A Librarian's Guide, 3rd Edition

Children's Literature in Action: A Librarian's Guide, 3rd Edition PDF Author: Sylvia M. Vardell
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440867798
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 348

View

Book Description
This practitioner-oriented introduction to literature for children ages 5–12 covers the latest trends, titles, and tools for choosing the best books and materials as well as for planning fun and effective programs and activities. • Includes recommendations and evaluations of digital ebooks, apps, and audiobooks as well as print titles, providing full coverage of today's range of materials for children • Features short essays by top authors and practitioners in the field to give readers expert opinions and guidance • Provides author comments, collaborative activities, featured books, special topics and programs, selected awards and celebrations, historical connections, recommended resources, issues for discussion, relevant professional standards, and assignment suggestions within each chapter • Addresses the most recent professional and curricular standards for elementary school students—a key element of today's education assessment standards

Child Autonomy and Child Governance in Children's Literature

Child Autonomy and Child Governance in Children's Literature PDF Author: Christopher Kelen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317394798
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 240

View

Book Description
This book explores representations of child autonomy and self-governance in children’s literature.The idea of child rule and child realms is central to children’s literature, and childhood is frequently represented as a state of being, with children seen as aliens in need of passports to Adultland (and vice versa). In a sense all children’s literature depends on the idea that children are different, separate, and in command of their own imaginative spaces and places. Although the idea of child rule is a persistent theme in discussions of children’s literature (or about children and childhood) the metaphor itself has never been properly unpacked with critical reference to examples from those many texts that are contingent on the authority and/or power of children. Child governance and autonomy can be seen as natural or perverse; it can be displayed as a threat or as a promise. Accordingly, the "child rule"-motif can be seen in Robinsonades and horror films, in philosophical treatises and in series fiction. The representations of self-ruling children are manifold and ambivalent, and range from the idyllic to the nightmarish. Contributors to this volume visit a range of texts in which children are, in various ways, empowered, discussing whether childhood itself may be thought of as a nationality, and what that may imply. This collection shows how representations of child governance have been used for different ideological, aesthetic, and pedagogical reasons, and will appeal to scholars of children’s literature, childhood studies, and cultural studies.

Shadow of a Mouse

Shadow of a Mouse PDF Author: Donald Crafton
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520261038
Category : Performing Arts
Languages : en
Pages : 372

View

Book Description
“Donald Crafton, our lively guide, shows us around a Tooniverse populated by performers, not just images, who engage us in all the ways their flesh-and-blood counterparts do, and then some. Taking classical animation as his terrain, Crafton nevertheless pushes ongoing discussions of performance, liveness, and corporeality in the directions in which they need to go if they are to help us describe and navigate our increasingly virtual worlds.” Philip Auslander, author of Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture "Every once in a while a book comes along that marks a transformational point in its discipline. Such a book is Donald Crafton's Shadow of a Mouse. Crafton skillfully draws together theoretical sources, animation history, technological development, and social analysis, deftly weaving together thinkers from Disney to Deleuze and Sito to Stanislavsky. The result is a substantial rethinking of animation that will reshape traditional approaches to the medium. Crafton's magisterial grasp of theory and history is livened by a true fan's passion for the subject and a keen sense of humor. Shadow of a Mouse is a must-read for anyone with an interest in performance, embodiment, popular culture, race, or reception." Mark Langer, Associate Professor of Film Studies, Carleton University

Beyond the Book

Beyond the Book PDF Author: Bridget Carrington
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443855413
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 302

View

Book Description
November 2012 saw the joint annual conference of the British branch of the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY UK) and the MA course at the National Centre for Research in Children’s Literature (NCRCL) at Roehampton University. The theme of the conference was the investigation of aspects of literature for children that were ‘Beyond the Book’. From woodcuts to e-books, children’s literature has always lent itself to reinterpretation and expansion. In its early days, this was achieved through different forms of retelling, through illustration and interactive illustration (pop-ups and flaps), and then through music, film, television and stage adaptation. The contributors to the 2012 conference explored the variety of means by which we transform literature intended for children, and celebrated the vibrant world of creativity that has sought, and continues to seek, different ways in which to engage young readers. Bridget Carrington and Jennifer Harding have previously collaborated as the editors of earlier IBBY UK/NCRCL MA conference proceedings: Going Graphic: Comics and Graphic Novels for Young People; Conflicts and Controversies: Challenging Children’s Literature; and It Doesn’t Have to Rhyme: Children and Poetry (Pied Piper Publishing, 2010, 2011, 2012).

Children’s Literature and Intergenerational Relationships

Children’s Literature and Intergenerational Relationships PDF Author: Justyna Deszcz-Tryhubczak
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030677001
Category : Literary Criticism
Languages : en
Pages : 252

View

Book Description
Children’s Literature and Intergenerational Relationships: Encounters of the Playful Kind explores ways in which children’s literature becomes the object and catalyst of play that brings younger and older generations closer to one another. Providing examples from diverse cultural and historical contexts, this collection argues that children’s texts promote intergenerational play through the use of literary devices and graphic formats and that they may prompt joint play practices in the real world. The book offers a distinctive contribution to children’s literature scholarship by shifting critical attention away from the difference and conflict between children and adults to the exploration of inter-age interdependencies as equally crucial aspects of human life, presenting a new perspective for all who research and work with children’s culture in times of global aging.