Reducing Inequality in Latin America

Reducing Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: María Fernanda Valdés Valencia
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317069730
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 158

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Book Description
This book examines the role of tax policy in the incidence of socio-economic inequality. With a focus on Latin American, the author demonstrates that while inequality has decreased remarkably in the last decade – during the very period in which inequality was increasing almost everywhere else in the world – this reduction cannot be attributed to a better use of tax policy. Offering both quantitative and qualitative reviews of tax policies pursued by Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru over the last two decades, Reducing Inequality in Latin America contends that these countries continue to make insufficient use taxation measures in combating startlingly high levels of inequality. Drawing on legal texts, interviews with researchers and experts in the field, and official monetary statistics to obtain a complete picture of how discretionary tax policy has been pursued in the region, this volume engages with a range of recent economic theories to argue for the importance of using the tax system to reduce inequalities, whilst also offering new methods for measuring tax policy in subsequent research. As such, it will appeal both to scholars of social science and policy makers with interests in economics, social inequality, public policy and international political economy.

Coping with Austerity

Coping with Austerity PDF Author: Nora Claudia Lustig
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815708025
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 484

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Book Description
Concern about the pervasiveness of poverty and income inequality in Latin America goes beyond the issue of social justice. The persistence of mass poverty and inequality pits different social groups against one another and leads to a polarization that makes consistent economic policy formation difficult. National productivity may also suffer in economies with poorly educated workforces lacking adequate health care. Statistics on poverty and inequality in Latin America are rudimentary and often conflicting. Yet it is known that poverty became more widespread in the region during the last decade as it experienced economic decline. About 180 million people, or two out of every five in the area, are now living in poverty—some 50 million more than in 1980. It is also known that income and wealth are far more unequally distributed in Latin America than in most other developing regions. This book provides a much-needed assessment of how poverty, inequality, and social indicators have fared in several Latin American countries over the past decade. Experts from Latin America and the U.S. focus attention on the extent of poverty and inequality and how they have been affected by the debt crisis and adjustment of the 1980s. They explain that issues of poverty and inequality were neglected as governments in Latin America struggled to restore stability and growth to their economies. Social sector spending declined sharply, affecting both the quality and quantity of services provided. The contributors examine how poverty and inequality are—or are not—being addressed in each country. They also explore the viability of alternative approaches to combating poverty and reducing inequality. They explain that virtually no one denies that governments must take a leading role in the provision of health, education, and other social services. Yet there are sharp debates--over the compatibility of social spending with economic adjustment and stabilization; the priority of social expenditures in relation to other governmental spending; the allocation of funds among different social programs; who should, and should not, benefit; and who should pay the costs. They show that the poor and middle sectors had to pay dearly because their governments, the international community, and the families themselves were not prepared to deal with austerity. The book contains eleven chapters by contributors from universities and research institutions in the U.S. and Latin America, as well as from international financial organizations. It is the result of a project cosponsored by Inter-American Dialogue.

Cities and Economic Inequality in Latin America

Cities and Economic Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: Lena Simet
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000569640
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
This book examines trends and determinants of economic inequality in cities in Latin America, the world’s most unequal region. It explores how the gap between the haves and the have nots manifests in every part of urban life – from housing to schooling to employment. It asks why some cities have higher inequality than others and what we can learn from these differences as we fight against inequality. The book starts with reviewing the policies and forces that explain the rise and fall of inequality in Latin America since the 1990s and why progress in reducing inequality has stalled. It then focuses on Argentina’s cities and applies a set of quantitative tools to identify inequality determinants. It finds that intra-urban inequality generally mirrors national-level trends, but local idiosyncrasies related to a city’s labor market, informal employment, and social protection systems matter. The book discusses the pitfalls of privatizing public services that turned access to water in metropolitan Buenos Aires more unequal. It explores the promises and unintended consequences of slum upgrading initiatives in Buenos Aires’ Villa 20. The book presents lessons that can inform policies and practices in the region and beyond. Developing a strategy against inequality that incorporates local features and resists the temptation to rely on the "free market" for solutions to urban problems offers a powerful opportunity. Drawing from the field of economics and social and urban policy, this book shows that the battle against inequality is not only won and lost in cities but requires a uniquely public and urban response. As such, it will be of interest to advanced students, researchers, and policymakers across development economics, urban studies, and Latin American studies.

A Moment of Equality for Latin America?

A Moment of Equality for Latin America? PDF Author: Barbara Fritz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317187571
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 284

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Book Description
Unlike other regions around the world, several Latin American countries have managed to reduce income inequality over the last decade. Higher growth rates and growing employment, but also innovative wage policies and social programs, have contributed to reducing poverty and narrow income disparities. Yet, despite this progress, nation-states in the region demonstrate little capacity to substantially change their patterns of deeply rooted inequalities. Focusing on the limits and challenges of redistributive policies in Latin America, this volume synthesizes and updates the discussion of inequality in the region, introducing the perspective of global and transnational interdependencies. The book explores the extent to which redistributive policies have been interlinked with the provision and quality of public goods as well as with structural changes of the productive sector. Inspired by structuralist and neostructuralist thinking of Latin American economists, such as Raúl Prebisch and Celso Furtado, authors question the redistributive impact of the interplay of recent macroeconomic, fiscal and social policies, particularly under left and center-left administrations committed to greater equality. Bringing together experts in social, fiscal and macroeconomic policies to investigate the interdependent and global character of inequalities, this book will appeal to scholars of sociology, economics, development and politics with interests in Latin America, inequality and public policy.

Declining Inequality in Latin America

Declining Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: Luis Felipe López-Calva
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815704447
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 253

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Book Description
Latin America is often singled out for its high and persistent income inequality. Toward the end of the 1990s, however, income concentration began to fall across the region. Of the seventeen countries for which comparable data are available, twelve have experienced a decline, particularly since 2000. This book is among the first efforts to understand what happened in these countries and why. Led by editors Felipe López-Calva and Nora Lustig, a panel of distinguished economists undertakes in-depth analyses of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. In addition, they provide essential background in the form of overviews of the relationship between markets and inequality, the political economy of redistribution, and the evolution of income inequality in the advanced industrialized economies. Two factors account for much of the decline in inequality: a decrease in the wage gap between skilled and low-skilled labor, and an increase in government transfers targeted to the poor. Thanks to the timeliness and sophistication of these essays, Declining Inequality in Latin America is likely to become a standard reference in its field.

Inequality In Latin America

Inequality In Latin America PDF Author: J. Humberto Lopez
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Average income
Languages : en
Pages : 39

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Book Description
Latin America is together with Sub-Saharan Africa the most unequal region of the world. This paper documents recent inequality trends in the Latin American region, going beyond traditional measures of income inequality. The paper also reviews some of the explanations that have been put forward to understand the current situation, and discusses why reducing income inequality should be an important policy priority. In particular, the authors discuss channels through which inequality can affect growth and output volatility. On the whole, the analysis suggests a two-pronged approach to reduce inequality in the region that combines policies aimed at improving the distribution of assets (especially education) with elements aimed at improving the capacity of the state to redistribute income through taxes and transfers.

Asset Inequality Does Matter

Asset Inequality Does Matter PDF Author: Nancy Birdsall
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Desigualdad economica - America Latina
Languages : en
Pages : 48

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Book Description
In light of recent results, the fight against poverty in Latin America has been far from satisfactory. The standard approach of multicultural credit agencies will continue to be limited if it does not stress the central role of the distribution as well as the accumulation of productive assets, especially human capital. After removing fiscal and trade distortions with structural reforms, insufficient levels of human and physical capital accumulation and highly skewed asset distribution are critical growth constraints for Latin America. Policies aimed at reducing inequalities in assets accumulation should be at the center of a new approach for poverty eradication and increased growth in Latin America at the start of the new century.

Overcoming Inequality in Latin America

Overcoming Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: Ricardo Gottschalk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134230133
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 188

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Book Description
Latin America is faced with the challenge of achieving the Millennium Developmental Goal to halve poverty in the region by 2015. Historically, this region has experienced persistently high levels of inequality and poverty, the causes and consequences of which are analytically examined here. Adopting a multidimensional approach, this informative book focuses on the mechanisms that lead to higher inequality and emphasizes the role of macroeconomics, trade rules, capital flows and the political electoral process. It analyzes how inequality has hindered development, how it interacts with a nation’s economic, social and political processes, and how inequality constrains these processes in ways that weakens the prospect of establishing and sustaining a dynamic, wealthy and creative society. An international team of specialist contributors investigate and explain these crucial issues. Examining the key economic policies and reforms which have exacerbated the region’s extremely high inequality levels, throughout this book they prescribe an alternative range of policy suggestions to help alleviate inequality and provide the foundations for more equitable development.

Reducing Inequality in Latin America

Reducing Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: María Fernanda Valdés Valencia
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317069730
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 158

View

Book Description
This book examines the role of tax policy in the incidence of socio-economic inequality. With a focus on Latin American, the author demonstrates that while inequality has decreased remarkably in the last decade – during the very period in which inequality was increasing almost everywhere else in the world – this reduction cannot be attributed to a better use of tax policy. Offering both quantitative and qualitative reviews of tax policies pursued by Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru over the last two decades, Reducing Inequality in Latin America contends that these countries continue to make insufficient use taxation measures in combating startlingly high levels of inequality. Drawing on legal texts, interviews with researchers and experts in the field, and official monetary statistics to obtain a complete picture of how discretionary tax policy has been pursued in the region, this volume engages with a range of recent economic theories to argue for the importance of using the tax system to reduce inequalities, whilst also offering new methods for measuring tax policy in subsequent research. As such, it will appeal both to scholars of social science and policy makers with interests in economics, social inequality, public policy and international political economy.

Coping with Austerity

Coping with Austerity PDF Author: Nora Claudia Lustig
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815708025
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 484

View

Book Description
Concern about the pervasiveness of poverty and income inequality in Latin America goes beyond the issue of social justice. The persistence of mass poverty and inequality pits different social groups against one another and leads to a polarization that makes consistent economic policy formation difficult. National productivity may also suffer in economies with poorly educated workforces lacking adequate health care. Statistics on poverty and inequality in Latin America are rudimentary and often conflicting. Yet it is known that poverty became more widespread in the region during the last decade as it experienced economic decline. About 180 million people, or two out of every five in the area, are now living in poverty—some 50 million more than in 1980. It is also known that income and wealth are far more unequally distributed in Latin America than in most other developing regions. This book provides a much-needed assessment of how poverty, inequality, and social indicators have fared in several Latin American countries over the past decade. Experts from Latin America and the U.S. focus attention on the extent of poverty and inequality and how they have been affected by the debt crisis and adjustment of the 1980s. They explain that issues of poverty and inequality were neglected as governments in Latin America struggled to restore stability and growth to their economies. Social sector spending declined sharply, affecting both the quality and quantity of services provided. The contributors examine how poverty and inequality are—or are not—being addressed in each country. They also explore the viability of alternative approaches to combating poverty and reducing inequality. They explain that virtually no one denies that governments must take a leading role in the provision of health, education, and other social services. Yet there are sharp debates--over the compatibility of social spending with economic adjustment and stabilization; the priority of social expenditures in relation to other governmental spending; the allocation of funds among different social programs; who should, and should not, benefit; and who should pay the costs. They show that the poor and middle sectors had to pay dearly because their governments, the international community, and the families themselves were not prepared to deal with austerity. The book contains eleven chapters by contributors from universities and research institutions in the U.S. and Latin America, as well as from international financial organizations. It is the result of a project cosponsored by Inter-American Dialogue.

Inclusive Social Development

Inclusive Social Development PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Caribbean Area
Languages : en
Pages : 172

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Book Description


Some Notes on the Role of Adult Education in Reducing Inequality, with Particular Reference to the Rural Context in Latin America

Some Notes on the Role of Adult Education in Reducing Inequality, with Particular Reference to the Rural Context in Latin America PDF Author:
Publisher: Bib. Orton IICA / CATIE
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 34

View

Book Description


Cities and Economic Inequality in Latin America

Cities and Economic Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: Lena Simet
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000569640
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 208

View

Book Description
This book examines trends and determinants of economic inequality in cities in Latin America, the world’s most unequal region. It explores how the gap between the haves and the have nots manifests in every part of urban life – from housing to schooling to employment. It asks why some cities have higher inequality than others and what we can learn from these differences as we fight against inequality. The book starts with reviewing the policies and forces that explain the rise and fall of inequality in Latin America since the 1990s and why progress in reducing inequality has stalled. It then focuses on Argentina’s cities and applies a set of quantitative tools to identify inequality determinants. It finds that intra-urban inequality generally mirrors national-level trends, but local idiosyncrasies related to a city’s labor market, informal employment, and social protection systems matter. The book discusses the pitfalls of privatizing public services that turned access to water in metropolitan Buenos Aires more unequal. It explores the promises and unintended consequences of slum upgrading initiatives in Buenos Aires’ Villa 20. The book presents lessons that can inform policies and practices in the region and beyond. Developing a strategy against inequality that incorporates local features and resists the temptation to rely on the "free market" for solutions to urban problems offers a powerful opportunity. Drawing from the field of economics and social and urban policy, this book shows that the battle against inequality is not only won and lost in cities but requires a uniquely public and urban response. As such, it will be of interest to advanced students, researchers, and policymakers across development economics, urban studies, and Latin American studies.

A Moment of Equality for Latin America?

A Moment of Equality for Latin America? PDF Author: Barbara Fritz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317187571
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 284

View

Book Description
Unlike other regions around the world, several Latin American countries have managed to reduce income inequality over the last decade. Higher growth rates and growing employment, but also innovative wage policies and social programs, have contributed to reducing poverty and narrow income disparities. Yet, despite this progress, nation-states in the region demonstrate little capacity to substantially change their patterns of deeply rooted inequalities. Focusing on the limits and challenges of redistributive policies in Latin America, this volume synthesizes and updates the discussion of inequality in the region, introducing the perspective of global and transnational interdependencies. The book explores the extent to which redistributive policies have been interlinked with the provision and quality of public goods as well as with structural changes of the productive sector. Inspired by structuralist and neostructuralist thinking of Latin American economists, such as Raúl Prebisch and Celso Furtado, authors question the redistributive impact of the interplay of recent macroeconomic, fiscal and social policies, particularly under left and center-left administrations committed to greater equality. Bringing together experts in social, fiscal and macroeconomic policies to investigate the interdependent and global character of inequalities, this book will appeal to scholars of sociology, economics, development and politics with interests in Latin America, inequality and public policy.

Declining Inequality in Latin America

Declining Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: Luis Felipe López-Calva
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815704447
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 253

View

Book Description
Latin America is often singled out for its high and persistent income inequality. Toward the end of the 1990s, however, income concentration began to fall across the region. Of the seventeen countries for which comparable data are available, twelve have experienced a decline, particularly since 2000. This book is among the first efforts to understand what happened in these countries and why. Led by editors Felipe López-Calva and Nora Lustig, a panel of distinguished economists undertakes in-depth analyses of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Peru. In addition, they provide essential background in the form of overviews of the relationship between markets and inequality, the political economy of redistribution, and the evolution of income inequality in the advanced industrialized economies. Two factors account for much of the decline in inequality: a decrease in the wage gap between skilled and low-skilled labor, and an increase in government transfers targeted to the poor. Thanks to the timeliness and sophistication of these essays, Declining Inequality in Latin America is likely to become a standard reference in its field.

Inequality In Latin America

Inequality In Latin America PDF Author: J. Humberto Lopez
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Average income
Languages : en
Pages : 39

View

Book Description
Latin America is together with Sub-Saharan Africa the most unequal region of the world. This paper documents recent inequality trends in the Latin American region, going beyond traditional measures of income inequality. The paper also reviews some of the explanations that have been put forward to understand the current situation, and discusses why reducing income inequality should be an important policy priority. In particular, the authors discuss channels through which inequality can affect growth and output volatility. On the whole, the analysis suggests a two-pronged approach to reduce inequality in the region that combines policies aimed at improving the distribution of assets (especially education) with elements aimed at improving the capacity of the state to redistribute income through taxes and transfers.

Asset Inequality Does Matter

Asset Inequality Does Matter PDF Author: Nancy Birdsall
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Desigualdad economica - America Latina
Languages : en
Pages : 48

View

Book Description
In light of recent results, the fight against poverty in Latin America has been far from satisfactory. The standard approach of multicultural credit agencies will continue to be limited if it does not stress the central role of the distribution as well as the accumulation of productive assets, especially human capital. After removing fiscal and trade distortions with structural reforms, insufficient levels of human and physical capital accumulation and highly skewed asset distribution are critical growth constraints for Latin America. Policies aimed at reducing inequalities in assets accumulation should be at the center of a new approach for poverty eradication and increased growth in Latin America at the start of the new century.

Overcoming Inequality in Latin America

Overcoming Inequality in Latin America PDF Author: Ricardo Gottschalk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134230133
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 188

View

Book Description
Latin America is faced with the challenge of achieving the Millennium Developmental Goal to halve poverty in the region by 2015. Historically, this region has experienced persistently high levels of inequality and poverty, the causes and consequences of which are analytically examined here. Adopting a multidimensional approach, this informative book focuses on the mechanisms that lead to higher inequality and emphasizes the role of macroeconomics, trade rules, capital flows and the political electoral process. It analyzes how inequality has hindered development, how it interacts with a nation’s economic, social and political processes, and how inequality constrains these processes in ways that weakens the prospect of establishing and sustaining a dynamic, wealthy and creative society. An international team of specialist contributors investigate and explain these crucial issues. Examining the key economic policies and reforms which have exacerbated the region’s extremely high inequality levels, throughout this book they prescribe an alternative range of policy suggestions to help alleviate inequality and provide the foundations for more equitable development.