SQL Server Execution Plans

SQL Server Execution Plans PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher: Red Gate Books
ISBN: 9781910035245
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 520

Get Book

Book Description
If a query is performing poorly, and you can't understand why, then that query's execution plan will tell you not only what data set is coming back, but also what SQL Server did, and in what order, to get that data. It will reveal how the data was retrieved, and from which tables and indexes, what types of joins were used, at what point filtering, sorting and aggregation occurred, and a whole lot more. These details will often highlight the likely source of any problem. I wrote this book with the singular goal of teaching you how to read SQL Server Execution plans It will explain, among many other things, the following: How to capture execution plans using manual and automatic methods A documented method for reading and interpreting execution plans How common SQL Server objects, such as indexes, views, stored procedures, and so on, appear in execution plans How to control execution plans with hints and plan guides, and why this is a double-edged sword How the Query Store works with, and collects data on, execution plans With this knowledge, you'll have everything you need to read the execution plan, for any query of your own, regardless of complexity, and understand what it does and what is causing the bad performance. It is still your job to work out how best to fix it, but your new understanding of execution plans will give a much better chance of success!

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1430267429
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 593

Get Book

Book Description
Queries not running fast enough? Wondering about the in-memory database features in 2014? Tired of phone calls from frustrated users? Grant Fritchey’s book SQL Server Query Performance Tuning is the answer to your SQL Server query performance problems. The book is revised to cover the very latest in performance optimization features and techniques, especially including the newly-added, in-memory database features formerly known under the code name Project Hekaton. This book provides the tools you need to approach your queries with performance in mind. SQL Server Query Performance Tuning leads you through understanding the causes of poor performance, how to identify them, and how to fix them. You’ll learn to be proactive in establishing performance baselines using tools like Performance Monitor and Extended Events. You’ll learn to recognize bottlenecks and defuse them before the phone rings. You’ll learn some quick solutions too, but emphasis is on designing for performance and getting it right, and upon heading off trouble before it occurs. Delight your users. Silence that ringing phone. Put the principles and lessons from SQL Server Query Performance Tuning into practice today. Covers the in-memory features from Project Hekaton Helps establish performance baselines and monitor against them Guides in troubleshooting and eliminating of bottlenecks that frustrate users

SQL Server Execution Plans, 2nd Edition

SQL Server Execution Plans, 2nd Edition PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Database management
Languages : en
Pages : 344

Get Book

Book Description
Every day the same types of questions come up repeatedly: Why is this query running slowly? Why is SQL Server ignoring my index? My response is the same in each case: have you looked at the execution plan? An execution plan describes what's going on behind the scenes when SQL Server executes a query. It shows how the query optimizer joined the data from the various tables defined in the query, which indexes it used, if any, how it performed any aggregations or sorting, and much more. It also estimates the cost of all of these operations, in terms of the relative load placed on the system. Every Database Administrator, developer, report writer, and anyone else who writes T-SQL to access SQL Server data, must understand how to read and interpret execution plans. My book leads you right from the basics of capturing plans, through how to interrupt them in their various forms, graphical or XML, and then how to use the information you find there to diagnose the most common causes of poor query performance, and so optimize your SQL queries, and improve your indexing strategy.

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled PDF Author: Sajal Dam
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1430204079
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 624

Get Book

Book Description
* A completely revised edition of a book that is highly-regarded in the community (as evidenced by Amazon reviews and other customer feedback). * The only comprehensive, practical guide to performance optimization techniques for SQL Server applications. * Essential reading for any DBA or developer resposible for the eprformance of an exisiting SQL Server system, or the design of a new one.

SQL Server Execution Plans

SQL Server Execution Plans PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher: Red Gate Books
ISBN: 9781906434939
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 344

Get Book

Book Description
Every day, out in the various online forums devoted to SQL Server, and on Twitter, the same types of questions come up repeatedly: Why is this query running slowly? Why is SQL Server ignoring my index? Why does this query run quickly sometimes and slowly at others? My response is the same in each case: have you looked at the execution plan? An execution plan describes what's going on behind the scenes when SQL Server executes a query. It shows how the query optimizer joined the data from the various tables defined in the query, which indexes it used, if any, how it performed any aggregations or sorting, and much more. It also estimates the cost of all of these operations, in terms of the relative load placed on the system. Every Database Administrator, developer, report writer, and anyone else who writes T-SQL to access SQL Server data, must understand how to read and interpret execution plans.My book leads you right from the basics of capturing plans, through how to interrupt them in their various forms, graphical or XML, and then how to use the information you find there to diagnose the most common causes of poor query performance, and so optimize your SQL queries, and improve your indexing strategy.

SQL Server Query Tuning and Optimization

SQL Server Query Tuning and Optimization PDF Author: Benjamin Nevarez
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1803239786
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 446

Get Book

Book Description
Get well-versed with ready-to-use techniques for creating high-performance queries and applications Key Features Speed up queries and dramatically improve application performance by both understanding query engine internals and practical query optimization Understand how the query optimizer works Learn about intelligent query processing and what is new in SQL Server 2022 Book Description SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database server, it is a software product with the primary function of storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications. This book starts by describing the inner workings of the query optimizer, and will enable you to use this knowledge to write better queries and provide the query engine with all the information it needs to produce efficient execution plans. As you progress, you'll get practical query optimization tips for troubleshooting underperforming queries. The book will also guide you through intelligent query processing and what is new in SQL Server 2022. Query performance topics such as the Query Store, In-Memory OLTP and columnstore indexes are covered as well. By the end of this book, you'll be able to get the best possible performance for your queries and applications. What you will learn Troubleshoot queries using methods including extended events, SQL Trace, and dynamic management views Understand how the execution engine and query operators work Speed up queries and improve app performance by creating the right indexes Detect and fix cardinality estimation errors by examining query optimizer statistics Monitor and promote both plan caching and plan reuse to improve app performance Troubleshoot and improve query performance by using the Query Store Improve the performance of data warehouse queries by using columnstore indexes Handle query processor limitations with hints and other methods Who this book is for This book is for SQL Server developers who are struggling with slow query execution, database administrators who are tasked with troubleshooting slow application performance, and database architects who design SQL Server databases in support of line-of-business and data warehousing applications.

Microsoft SQL Server 2014 Unleashed

Microsoft SQL Server 2014 Unleashed PDF Author: Ray Rankins
Publisher: Sams Publishing
ISBN: 0134084454
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 1992

Get Book

Book Description
The industry’s most complete, useful, and up-to-date guide to SQL Server 2014. You’ll find start-to-finish coverage of SQL Server’s core database server and management capabilities: all the real-world information, tips, guidelines, and examples you’ll need to install, monitor, maintain, and optimize the most complex database environments. The provided examples and sample code provide plenty of hands-on opportunities to learn more about SQL Server and create your own viable solutions. Four leading SQL Server experts present deep practical insights for administering SQL Server, analyzing and optimizing queries, implementing data warehouses, ensuring high availability, tuning performance, and much more. You will benefit from their behind-the-scenes look into SQL Server, showing what goes on behind the various wizards and GUI-based tools. You’ll learn how to use the underlying SQL commands to fully unlock the power and capabilities of SQL Server. Writing for all intermediate-to-advanced-level SQL Server professionals, the authors draw on immense production experience with SQL Server. Throughout, they focus on successfully applying SQL Server 2014’s most powerful capabilities and its newest tools and features. Detailed information on how to… Understand SQL Server 2014’s new features and each edition’s capabilities and licensing Install, upgrade to, and configure SQL Server 2014 for better performance and easier management Streamline and automate key administration tasks with Smart Admin Leverage powerful new backup/restore options: flexible backup to URL, Managed Backup to Windows Azure, and encrypted backups Strengthen security with new features for enforcing “least privilege” Improve performance with updateable columnstore indexes, Delayed Durability, and other enhancements Execute queries and business logic more efficiently with memoryoptimized tables, buffer pool extension, and natively-compiled stored procedures Control workloads and Disk I/O with the Resource Governor Deploy AlwaysOn Availability Groups and Failover Cluster Instances to achieve enterprise-class availability and disaster recovery Apply new Business Intelligence improvements in Master Data Services, data quality, and Parallel Data Warehouse

Beginning Spatial with SQL Server 2008

Beginning Spatial with SQL Server 2008 PDF Author: Alastair Aitchison
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1430218290
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 458

Get Book

Book Description
Microsoft SQL Server 2008 introduces new geography and geometry spatial datatypes that enable the storage of structured data describing the shape and position of objects in space. This is an interesting and exciting new feature, with many potentially useful applications. Beginning Spatial with SQL Server 2008 covers everything you need to know to begin using these new spatial datatypes, and explains how to apply them in practical situations involving the spatial relationships of people, places, and things on the earth. All of the spatial concepts introduced are explained from the ground up, so you need not have any previous knowledge of working with spatial data. Every section is illustrated with code examples that you can use directly in SQL Server. All of the topics covered in this book apply to all versions of SQL Server 2008, including the freely available SQL Server 2008 Express. What you’ll learn Understand the fundamental concepts involved in working with spatial data, including spatial references and coordinate systems. Apply these concepts in the collection and storage of spatial data in SQL Server 2008, using the new geometry and geography field types. Create different types of spatial data objects—points, lines, and polygons—and use these to describe real–world objects. Learn how to analyze spatial data using a range of supported methods, and be aware of a number of different practical applications for these methods. Be shown how to integrate SQL Server with other tools, such as Microsoft Virtual Earth, to display a visual representation of spatial data. Know how to ensure the performance of spatially enabled databases by creating appropriate spatial indexes. Who this book is for SQL Server developers who wish to use spatial data in Microsoft SQL Server 2008.

The Real MCTS SQL Server 2008 Exam 70-433 Prep Kit

The Real MCTS SQL Server 2008 Exam 70-433 Prep Kit PDF Author:
Publisher: Syngress
ISBN: 9780080956916
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 632

Get Book

Book Description
SQL Server 2008 is the latest update to Microsoft's flagship database management system. This is the largest update since SQL Server 2005, and it brings increased ability to deliver data across more platforms, and thus many different types of devices. New functionality also allows for easy storage and retrieval of digitized images and video. These attributes address the recent explosion in the popularity of web-based video and server and desktop virtualization. The Real MCTS SQL Server 2008 Exam 70-433 Prep Kit prepares readers for the Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist exam: SQL Server 2008, Database Development. This is a new exam in the SQL Server product family, and is comprised of some objectives from exam 70-431 from SQL Server 2005, and covers new, expanded query capabilities in SQL Server 2008. According to Microsoft: Exam 70-431 for SQL Server 2005 was passed by over 35,000 people. ~ 150,000 people passed a similar exam for SQL Server 2000. Additionally, this exam is a pre-requisite for those going on to obtain the MCITP: Database Developer 2008: Successful candidates for the SQL Server 2005 MCITP ~ 2,500. This is The 'Real' Microsoft Exam Prep Kit, and provides the reader with independent and unbiased exam tips and warnings everything they need to know to ensure certification success. Authored by Mark Horninger, a nationally recognized leader in SQL Server with over 50 Microsoft certifications to his credit; Mark knows what it takes to successfully navigate Microsoft exams.

Microsoft SQL Server 2000

Microsoft SQL Server 2000 PDF Author: Rahul Sharma
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: 0201752832
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 557

Get Book

Book Description
Focusing primarily on the new features of SQL Server 2000, this informative overview draws on real-world examples and situations to demonstrate how to use the security features, replication, backup procedures, data warehousing, and optimization techniques of SQL 2000 and is accompaned by a companion CD-ROM that contains sample code, along with scripts and utilities for day-to-day DBA jobs. Original. (Intermediate)

SQL Server Execution Plans

SQL Server Execution Plans PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher: Red Gate Books
ISBN: 9781910035245
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 520

View

Book Description
If a query is performing poorly, and you can't understand why, then that query's execution plan will tell you not only what data set is coming back, but also what SQL Server did, and in what order, to get that data. It will reveal how the data was retrieved, and from which tables and indexes, what types of joins were used, at what point filtering, sorting and aggregation occurred, and a whole lot more. These details will often highlight the likely source of any problem. I wrote this book with the singular goal of teaching you how to read SQL Server Execution plans It will explain, among many other things, the following: How to capture execution plans using manual and automatic methods A documented method for reading and interpreting execution plans How common SQL Server objects, such as indexes, views, stored procedures, and so on, appear in execution plans How to control execution plans with hints and plan guides, and why this is a double-edged sword How the Query Store works with, and collects data on, execution plans With this knowledge, you'll have everything you need to read the execution plan, for any query of your own, regardless of complexity, and understand what it does and what is causing the bad performance. It is still your job to work out how best to fix it, but your new understanding of execution plans will give a much better chance of success!

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1430267429
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 593

View

Book Description
Queries not running fast enough? Wondering about the in-memory database features in 2014? Tired of phone calls from frustrated users? Grant Fritchey’s book SQL Server Query Performance Tuning is the answer to your SQL Server query performance problems. The book is revised to cover the very latest in performance optimization features and techniques, especially including the newly-added, in-memory database features formerly known under the code name Project Hekaton. This book provides the tools you need to approach your queries with performance in mind. SQL Server Query Performance Tuning leads you through understanding the causes of poor performance, how to identify them, and how to fix them. You’ll learn to be proactive in establishing performance baselines using tools like Performance Monitor and Extended Events. You’ll learn to recognize bottlenecks and defuse them before the phone rings. You’ll learn some quick solutions too, but emphasis is on designing for performance and getting it right, and upon heading off trouble before it occurs. Delight your users. Silence that ringing phone. Put the principles and lessons from SQL Server Query Performance Tuning into practice today. Covers the in-memory features from Project Hekaton Helps establish performance baselines and monitor against them Guides in troubleshooting and eliminating of bottlenecks that frustrate users

SQL Server Execution Plans, 2nd Edition

SQL Server Execution Plans, 2nd Edition PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Database management
Languages : en
Pages : 344

View

Book Description
Every day the same types of questions come up repeatedly: Why is this query running slowly? Why is SQL Server ignoring my index? My response is the same in each case: have you looked at the execution plan? An execution plan describes what's going on behind the scenes when SQL Server executes a query. It shows how the query optimizer joined the data from the various tables defined in the query, which indexes it used, if any, how it performed any aggregations or sorting, and much more. It also estimates the cost of all of these operations, in terms of the relative load placed on the system. Every Database Administrator, developer, report writer, and anyone else who writes T-SQL to access SQL Server data, must understand how to read and interpret execution plans. My book leads you right from the basics of capturing plans, through how to interrupt them in their various forms, graphical or XML, and then how to use the information you find there to diagnose the most common causes of poor query performance, and so optimize your SQL queries, and improve your indexing strategy.

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled

SQL Server Query Performance Tuning Distilled PDF Author: Sajal Dam
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1430204079
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 624

View

Book Description
* A completely revised edition of a book that is highly-regarded in the community (as evidenced by Amazon reviews and other customer feedback). * The only comprehensive, practical guide to performance optimization techniques for SQL Server applications. * Essential reading for any DBA or developer resposible for the eprformance of an exisiting SQL Server system, or the design of a new one.

SQL Server Execution Plans

SQL Server Execution Plans PDF Author: Grant Fritchey
Publisher: Red Gate Books
ISBN: 9781906434939
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 344

View

Book Description
Every day, out in the various online forums devoted to SQL Server, and on Twitter, the same types of questions come up repeatedly: Why is this query running slowly? Why is SQL Server ignoring my index? Why does this query run quickly sometimes and slowly at others? My response is the same in each case: have you looked at the execution plan? An execution plan describes what's going on behind the scenes when SQL Server executes a query. It shows how the query optimizer joined the data from the various tables defined in the query, which indexes it used, if any, how it performed any aggregations or sorting, and much more. It also estimates the cost of all of these operations, in terms of the relative load placed on the system. Every Database Administrator, developer, report writer, and anyone else who writes T-SQL to access SQL Server data, must understand how to read and interpret execution plans.My book leads you right from the basics of capturing plans, through how to interrupt them in their various forms, graphical or XML, and then how to use the information you find there to diagnose the most common causes of poor query performance, and so optimize your SQL queries, and improve your indexing strategy.

SQL Server Query Tuning and Optimization

SQL Server Query Tuning and Optimization PDF Author: Benjamin Nevarez
Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1803239786
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 446

View

Book Description
Get well-versed with ready-to-use techniques for creating high-performance queries and applications Key Features Speed up queries and dramatically improve application performance by both understanding query engine internals and practical query optimization Understand how the query optimizer works Learn about intelligent query processing and what is new in SQL Server 2022 Book Description SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database server, it is a software product with the primary function of storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications. This book starts by describing the inner workings of the query optimizer, and will enable you to use this knowledge to write better queries and provide the query engine with all the information it needs to produce efficient execution plans. As you progress, you'll get practical query optimization tips for troubleshooting underperforming queries. The book will also guide you through intelligent query processing and what is new in SQL Server 2022. Query performance topics such as the Query Store, In-Memory OLTP and columnstore indexes are covered as well. By the end of this book, you'll be able to get the best possible performance for your queries and applications. What you will learn Troubleshoot queries using methods including extended events, SQL Trace, and dynamic management views Understand how the execution engine and query operators work Speed up queries and improve app performance by creating the right indexes Detect and fix cardinality estimation errors by examining query optimizer statistics Monitor and promote both plan caching and plan reuse to improve app performance Troubleshoot and improve query performance by using the Query Store Improve the performance of data warehouse queries by using columnstore indexes Handle query processor limitations with hints and other methods Who this book is for This book is for SQL Server developers who are struggling with slow query execution, database administrators who are tasked with troubleshooting slow application performance, and database architects who design SQL Server databases in support of line-of-business and data warehousing applications.

Microsoft SQL Server 2014 Unleashed

Microsoft SQL Server 2014 Unleashed PDF Author: Ray Rankins
Publisher: Sams Publishing
ISBN: 0134084454
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 1992

View

Book Description
The industry’s most complete, useful, and up-to-date guide to SQL Server 2014. You’ll find start-to-finish coverage of SQL Server’s core database server and management capabilities: all the real-world information, tips, guidelines, and examples you’ll need to install, monitor, maintain, and optimize the most complex database environments. The provided examples and sample code provide plenty of hands-on opportunities to learn more about SQL Server and create your own viable solutions. Four leading SQL Server experts present deep practical insights for administering SQL Server, analyzing and optimizing queries, implementing data warehouses, ensuring high availability, tuning performance, and much more. You will benefit from their behind-the-scenes look into SQL Server, showing what goes on behind the various wizards and GUI-based tools. You’ll learn how to use the underlying SQL commands to fully unlock the power and capabilities of SQL Server. Writing for all intermediate-to-advanced-level SQL Server professionals, the authors draw on immense production experience with SQL Server. Throughout, they focus on successfully applying SQL Server 2014’s most powerful capabilities and its newest tools and features. Detailed information on how to… Understand SQL Server 2014’s new features and each edition’s capabilities and licensing Install, upgrade to, and configure SQL Server 2014 for better performance and easier management Streamline and automate key administration tasks with Smart Admin Leverage powerful new backup/restore options: flexible backup to URL, Managed Backup to Windows Azure, and encrypted backups Strengthen security with new features for enforcing “least privilege” Improve performance with updateable columnstore indexes, Delayed Durability, and other enhancements Execute queries and business logic more efficiently with memoryoptimized tables, buffer pool extension, and natively-compiled stored procedures Control workloads and Disk I/O with the Resource Governor Deploy AlwaysOn Availability Groups and Failover Cluster Instances to achieve enterprise-class availability and disaster recovery Apply new Business Intelligence improvements in Master Data Services, data quality, and Parallel Data Warehouse

Beginning Spatial with SQL Server 2008

Beginning Spatial with SQL Server 2008 PDF Author: Alastair Aitchison
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1430218290
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 458

View

Book Description
Microsoft SQL Server 2008 introduces new geography and geometry spatial datatypes that enable the storage of structured data describing the shape and position of objects in space. This is an interesting and exciting new feature, with many potentially useful applications. Beginning Spatial with SQL Server 2008 covers everything you need to know to begin using these new spatial datatypes, and explains how to apply them in practical situations involving the spatial relationships of people, places, and things on the earth. All of the spatial concepts introduced are explained from the ground up, so you need not have any previous knowledge of working with spatial data. Every section is illustrated with code examples that you can use directly in SQL Server. All of the topics covered in this book apply to all versions of SQL Server 2008, including the freely available SQL Server 2008 Express. What you’ll learn Understand the fundamental concepts involved in working with spatial data, including spatial references and coordinate systems. Apply these concepts in the collection and storage of spatial data in SQL Server 2008, using the new geometry and geography field types. Create different types of spatial data objects—points, lines, and polygons—and use these to describe real–world objects. Learn how to analyze spatial data using a range of supported methods, and be aware of a number of different practical applications for these methods. Be shown how to integrate SQL Server with other tools, such as Microsoft Virtual Earth, to display a visual representation of spatial data. Know how to ensure the performance of spatially enabled databases by creating appropriate spatial indexes. Who this book is for SQL Server developers who wish to use spatial data in Microsoft SQL Server 2008.

The Real MCTS SQL Server 2008 Exam 70-433 Prep Kit

The Real MCTS SQL Server 2008 Exam 70-433 Prep Kit PDF Author:
Publisher: Syngress
ISBN: 9780080956916
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 632

View

Book Description
SQL Server 2008 is the latest update to Microsoft's flagship database management system. This is the largest update since SQL Server 2005, and it brings increased ability to deliver data across more platforms, and thus many different types of devices. New functionality also allows for easy storage and retrieval of digitized images and video. These attributes address the recent explosion in the popularity of web-based video and server and desktop virtualization. The Real MCTS SQL Server 2008 Exam 70-433 Prep Kit prepares readers for the Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist exam: SQL Server 2008, Database Development. This is a new exam in the SQL Server product family, and is comprised of some objectives from exam 70-431 from SQL Server 2005, and covers new, expanded query capabilities in SQL Server 2008. According to Microsoft: Exam 70-431 for SQL Server 2005 was passed by over 35,000 people. ~ 150,000 people passed a similar exam for SQL Server 2000. Additionally, this exam is a pre-requisite for those going on to obtain the MCITP: Database Developer 2008: Successful candidates for the SQL Server 2005 MCITP ~ 2,500. This is The 'Real' Microsoft Exam Prep Kit, and provides the reader with independent and unbiased exam tips and warnings everything they need to know to ensure certification success. Authored by Mark Horninger, a nationally recognized leader in SQL Server with over 50 Microsoft certifications to his credit; Mark knows what it takes to successfully navigate Microsoft exams.

Microsoft SQL Server 2000

Microsoft SQL Server 2000 PDF Author: Rahul Sharma
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: 0201752832
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 557

View

Book Description
Focusing primarily on the new features of SQL Server 2000, this informative overview draws on real-world examples and situations to demonstrate how to use the security features, replication, backup procedures, data warehousing, and optimization techniques of SQL 2000 and is accompaned by a companion CD-ROM that contains sample code, along with scripts and utilities for day-to-day DBA jobs. Original. (Intermediate)