Anaesthesia of the Cat

Anaesthesia of the Cat PDF Author: Leslie W. Hall
Publisher: Saunders Limited
ISBN:
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 362

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Book Description
This definitive, well-illustrated text covers all aspects of anesthesia of the cat. Authored by a known and internationally respected leader in the veterinary field, this work discusses anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology, as well as the clinical facets of feline anesthesia.

The Cardiorespiratory and Anesthetic Effects of Clinical and Supraclinical Doses of Alfaxalone in Cyclodextran in Cats and Dogs

The Cardiorespiratory and Anesthetic Effects of Clinical and Supraclinical Doses of Alfaxalone in Cyclodextran in Cats and Dogs PDF Author: Laura L. Nelson
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Anesthesia
Languages : en
Pages : 124

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Book Description
Abstract: The anesthetic properties of steroid hormones were first identified in 1941, leading to the development of neurosteroids as clinical anesthetics. CT-1341 was developed in the early 1970's, featuring a combination of two neurosteroids (alfaxalone and alphadolone) solubilized in Cremophor EL®, a polyethylated castor oil derivative that allows hydrophobic compounds to be carried in aqueous solution as micelles. Though also possessing anesthetic properties, alphadolone was included principally to improve the solubility of alfaxalone. CT-1341, marketed as Aithesin® and Saffan®, was characterized by smooth anesthetic induction and recovery in many species, a wide therapeutic range, and no cumulative effects with repeated administration. Its cardiorespiratory effects in humans and cats were generally mild. However, it induced severe hypersensitivity reactions in dogs, with similar reactions occasionally occurring in cats and humans. The hypersensitivity reactions associated with this formulation were linked to Cremophor EL®, leading to the discontinuation of Althesin® and some other Cremophor®containing anesthetics. More recently, alternate vehicles for hydrophobic drugs have been developed, including cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins are rings of a-i ,4-linked glucose subunits that feature a hydrophilic exterior and hydrophobic interior that allows them to complex with appropriately sized hydrophobic drugs. One such molecule, hydroxy-3-cyclodextrin, has a very wide therapeutic index, increases the solubility of alfaxalone by over 8,000 times, and has been combined with alfaxalone as Alfaxan-CD RTU®. The objectives of the described studies were to administer clinical and supraclinical doses of Alfaxan-CD RTU®, to assess the resultant quality of anesthesia, and to assess anesthetic effects on hemodynamic, respiratory, pH, and blood gas variables. We hypothesized that Alfaxan-CD RTU® would produce general anesthesia of rapid onset and brief duration in healthy dogs and cats, that minimal cardiorespiratory depression would result from clinical doses, and that no histaminoid reactions would occur. Eight healthy adult cats and dogs were included in the study. Each cat was sequentially administered placebo, 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg of Alfaxan-CD RTU®, with washout periods of 1, 3, and 24 hours between treatments, respectively. Monitored parameters included respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, lead II electrocardiography, heart rate, arterial blood gas (pH, PaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3), systemic (systolic, mean, and diastolic) and pulmonary arterial pressures, and body temperature. Rate pressure product and systemic vascular resistance were calculated. The qualities of induction, anesthetic maintenance, and recovery and the response to a noxious stimulus were assessed as categorical variables. Alfaxan-CD RTU® doses of 2 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg were administered to each dog as blinded treatments in random order. Each treatment was followed by a 3 hour washout period. Monitored and calculated parameters were the same as for cats, with the addition of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In cats, dose-dependent decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and rate pressure product were noted. These effects were most pronounced at the higher doses, with significant decreases in systolic arterial blood pressure and pulmonary arterial pressure after the 50 mg/kg doses. Hemodynamic changes were mild at the clinically recommended dose (5 mg/kg). Dose-dependent decreases in PaO2 occurred at all doses, but lasted for 30-60 minutes after the higher doses. The majority of cats at all doses required supplementation with 100% oxygen and mechanical ventilation after PaO2 dropped below 60 mmHg, including all cats at the highest dose. Apnea occurred in 1 and 2 cats at the 5 and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively, but occurred in all cats at the 50 mg/kg dose. Decreased tidal volume, pH, and HCO3, and increased PaCO2 also occurred at the 50 mg/kg dose. The qualities of induction and maintenance were excellent at all doses. The quality of recovery was excellent at lower doses, but poor in 5/7 cats at the 50 mg/kg dose due to prolonged recovery periods. In dogs, hemodynamic changes included dose-dependent decreases in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, rate pressure product, and systemic vascular resistance. Changes were generally mild and were most pronounced at the 6 and 20 mg/kg doses. Dose-dependent decreases in respiratory rate, minute volume, and PaO2 and decreases in PaCO2 and pH were also noted, but lasted for only 15 minutes and were most pronounced at the 20 mg/kg dose. Apnea was more frequent at higher doses. The quality of induction, maintenance, and recovery were good to excellent at all doses. The duration of anesthesia was dose-dependent. In conclusion, our studies indicate that Alfaxan-CD RTU® produced good to excellent anesthesia in cats, characterized by rapid induction to anesthesia, excellent muscle relaxation, unresponsiveness to noxious stimuli, and smooth, uneventful recovery from anesthesia. Hypoventilation and apnea were uncommon at clinically relevant doses, but became the most important adverse effects when larger doses were administered rapidly IV. Arterial blood pressure remained stable following the IV administration of clinically relevant doses (5 mg/kg) of Alfaxan® CD-RTU, but caution is advised with larger doses or with administration to animals with cardiovascular compromise. In dogs, Alfaxan®-CD RTU produced safe and effective anesthesia. Induction to anesthesia was rapid and uneventful. The maintenance and recovery periods were characterized by good to excellent muscle relaxation and analgesia. Cardiovascular status was well maintained when dosages of up to 6 mg/kg IV were administered. Respiratory depression and apnea were the only notable disadvantages, and then only when larger dosages (6 mg/kg IV) are administered. Alfaxan®-CD RTU should be an excellent alternative to currently available injectable anesthetics when administered for short surgical procedures or as induction to inhalant anesthesia.

Literature Search

Literature Search PDF Author: National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Medicine
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description


The Cat - E-Book

The Cat - E-Book PDF Author: Susan Little
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437706614
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 1424

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Book Description
Comprehensive in scope and exclusively devoted to feline medical care, Dr. Susan Little's The Cat: Clinical Medicine and Management is an essential resource for anyone who provides complete, state-of-the-art care to cats. In one convenient volume, you'll find authoritative, clinically-focused information enhanced by full-color illustrations, tables, boxes, algorithms, key points, and much more — all in a format designed for quick access. Dr. Little and her expert contributors address the unique concerns and challenges facing the feline practitioner, including the latest advances in feline medical diagnosis and management and their clinical applications to everyday practice. User-friendly and complete, The Cat is also available as an e-book, giving you easy access to the complete, fully-searchable contents online. Covers the latest advances in feline medicine from a systemic and adjunctive care perspective. It's the most comprehensive feline medical reference available with a strong clinical focus. Helps you meet the increasing demand for state-of-the-art medical care by cat owners — including advanced diagnostic services and treatments designed to extend and improve quality of life for feline companions. Features a full-color design with hundreds of schematic drawings, tables, boxes, key points, algorithms, and photographs for quick and easy access to information. Addresses key topics unique to feline medicine and not currently covered in other books, including: insights and clinical advances attributable to the mapping of the feline genome; medical conditions associated with behavioral problems; managing the feline patient with co-existing and chronic disease; special medical problems and care considerations for the geriatric cat; environmental enrichment for the indoor cat; feline zoonotic agents and implications for human health; and shelter medicine and overpopulation solutions. Provides in-depth information on indoor cats and senior cats, including timely guidance on meeting owners' expectations for longer, healthier lives for their cats. Addresses the challenges of pet overpopulation, particularly the impact of millions of feral cats on public health and the environment. Presents information written in the manner of expanded conference proceedings, delivering the latest insights and most current approaches to management of feline medical disorders. Includes contributions from approximately 60 contributors, drawing on the valuable expertise of those most knowledgeable in the field of feline medical care. Bears the full endorsement of the Winn Feline Foundation, a non-profit organization that supports studies about cat health and funds feline research projects worldwide, and is internationally regarded as a major contributor to the health and wellbeing of all cats. The complete contents also are available online through Veterinary Consult.

Veterinary Anaesthesia E-Book

Veterinary Anaesthesia E-Book PDF Author: Kathy W. Clarke
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702054232
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 625

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Book Description
This is a fully revised new edition of this essential text covering anaesthesia and analgesia in all large and small animal species. The new edition has greatly expanded sections on anaesthesia of exotic species such as small mammals, llamas, camels and many more, and also has a new section on anaesthesia of wild animals, both large and small, and birds. The book is divided into 3 sections; the first, Principles and Procedures covers pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, monitoring, sedation and premedication and much more. The second section comprises chapters on anaesthesia in all the main species and the third section covers anaesthesia in special cases, complications and crises ! Almost 200 prints and line illustrations enhance the comprehensive text, and make the new edition of Veterinary Anaesthesia 10/e an essential purchase for all vets ! all large and small animal species covered in one book: includes new advances in anaesthesia in horses, birds, lab animals and wild animals glossary of USA and UK drug names: up-dated coverage of all new anaesthetic agents in Europe and the USA first section covers principles of drug action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics the only book to discuss anaesthesia of individual species in detail: lot of info on anaesthesia of goats, sheep and other herbivores such as camels and llamas also covers analgesia in all species chapter on special cases such as anaesthesia in obstetrics chapter on anaesthetic accidents and crises ! the new edition will be made more student-friendly by adding special boxes in the text which will be relevant for this group. Full revision and update of content

Steroid Anaesthesia in the Cat

Steroid Anaesthesia in the Cat PDF Author: Glaxo Laboratories
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 32

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Book Description


Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia in Common Laboratory Animals

Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia in Common Laboratory Animals PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Analgesia
Languages : en
Pages : 45

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Book Description


Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia in Common Laboratory Animals

Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia in Common Laboratory Animals PDF Author: Fritz P. Gluckstein
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Analgesia
Languages : en
Pages : 24

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Book Description


Anaesthesia of the Cat

Anaesthesia of the Cat PDF Author: Leslie W. Hall
Publisher: Saunders Limited
ISBN:
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 362

View

Book Description
This definitive, well-illustrated text covers all aspects of anesthesia of the cat. Authored by a known and internationally respected leader in the veterinary field, this work discusses anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology, as well as the clinical facets of feline anesthesia.

The Cardiorespiratory and Anesthetic Effects of Clinical and Supraclinical Doses of Alfaxalone in Cyclodextran in Cats and Dogs

The Cardiorespiratory and Anesthetic Effects of Clinical and Supraclinical Doses of Alfaxalone in Cyclodextran in Cats and Dogs PDF Author: Laura L. Nelson
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Anesthesia
Languages : en
Pages : 124

View

Book Description
Abstract: The anesthetic properties of steroid hormones were first identified in 1941, leading to the development of neurosteroids as clinical anesthetics. CT-1341 was developed in the early 1970's, featuring a combination of two neurosteroids (alfaxalone and alphadolone) solubilized in Cremophor EL®, a polyethylated castor oil derivative that allows hydrophobic compounds to be carried in aqueous solution as micelles. Though also possessing anesthetic properties, alphadolone was included principally to improve the solubility of alfaxalone. CT-1341, marketed as Aithesin® and Saffan®, was characterized by smooth anesthetic induction and recovery in many species, a wide therapeutic range, and no cumulative effects with repeated administration. Its cardiorespiratory effects in humans and cats were generally mild. However, it induced severe hypersensitivity reactions in dogs, with similar reactions occasionally occurring in cats and humans. The hypersensitivity reactions associated with this formulation were linked to Cremophor EL®, leading to the discontinuation of Althesin® and some other Cremophor®containing anesthetics. More recently, alternate vehicles for hydrophobic drugs have been developed, including cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrins are rings of a-i ,4-linked glucose subunits that feature a hydrophilic exterior and hydrophobic interior that allows them to complex with appropriately sized hydrophobic drugs. One such molecule, hydroxy-3-cyclodextrin, has a very wide therapeutic index, increases the solubility of alfaxalone by over 8,000 times, and has been combined with alfaxalone as Alfaxan-CD RTU®. The objectives of the described studies were to administer clinical and supraclinical doses of Alfaxan-CD RTU®, to assess the resultant quality of anesthesia, and to assess anesthetic effects on hemodynamic, respiratory, pH, and blood gas variables. We hypothesized that Alfaxan-CD RTU® would produce general anesthesia of rapid onset and brief duration in healthy dogs and cats, that minimal cardiorespiratory depression would result from clinical doses, and that no histaminoid reactions would occur. Eight healthy adult cats and dogs were included in the study. Each cat was sequentially administered placebo, 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg of Alfaxan-CD RTU®, with washout periods of 1, 3, and 24 hours between treatments, respectively. Monitored parameters included respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, lead II electrocardiography, heart rate, arterial blood gas (pH, PaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3), systemic (systolic, mean, and diastolic) and pulmonary arterial pressures, and body temperature. Rate pressure product and systemic vascular resistance were calculated. The qualities of induction, anesthetic maintenance, and recovery and the response to a noxious stimulus were assessed as categorical variables. Alfaxan-CD RTU® doses of 2 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg were administered to each dog as blinded treatments in random order. Each treatment was followed by a 3 hour washout period. Monitored and calculated parameters were the same as for cats, with the addition of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In cats, dose-dependent decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and rate pressure product were noted. These effects were most pronounced at the higher doses, with significant decreases in systolic arterial blood pressure and pulmonary arterial pressure after the 50 mg/kg doses. Hemodynamic changes were mild at the clinically recommended dose (5 mg/kg). Dose-dependent decreases in PaO2 occurred at all doses, but lasted for 30-60 minutes after the higher doses. The majority of cats at all doses required supplementation with 100% oxygen and mechanical ventilation after PaO2 dropped below 60 mmHg, including all cats at the highest dose. Apnea occurred in 1 and 2 cats at the 5 and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively, but occurred in all cats at the 50 mg/kg dose. Decreased tidal volume, pH, and HCO3, and increased PaCO2 also occurred at the 50 mg/kg dose. The qualities of induction and maintenance were excellent at all doses. The quality of recovery was excellent at lower doses, but poor in 5/7 cats at the 50 mg/kg dose due to prolonged recovery periods. In dogs, hemodynamic changes included dose-dependent decreases in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, rate pressure product, and systemic vascular resistance. Changes were generally mild and were most pronounced at the 6 and 20 mg/kg doses. Dose-dependent decreases in respiratory rate, minute volume, and PaO2 and decreases in PaCO2 and pH were also noted, but lasted for only 15 minutes and were most pronounced at the 20 mg/kg dose. Apnea was more frequent at higher doses. The quality of induction, maintenance, and recovery were good to excellent at all doses. The duration of anesthesia was dose-dependent. In conclusion, our studies indicate that Alfaxan-CD RTU® produced good to excellent anesthesia in cats, characterized by rapid induction to anesthesia, excellent muscle relaxation, unresponsiveness to noxious stimuli, and smooth, uneventful recovery from anesthesia. Hypoventilation and apnea were uncommon at clinically relevant doses, but became the most important adverse effects when larger doses were administered rapidly IV. Arterial blood pressure remained stable following the IV administration of clinically relevant doses (5 mg/kg) of Alfaxan® CD-RTU, but caution is advised with larger doses or with administration to animals with cardiovascular compromise. In dogs, Alfaxan®-CD RTU produced safe and effective anesthesia. Induction to anesthesia was rapid and uneventful. The maintenance and recovery periods were characterized by good to excellent muscle relaxation and analgesia. Cardiovascular status was well maintained when dosages of up to 6 mg/kg IV were administered. Respiratory depression and apnea were the only notable disadvantages, and then only when larger dosages (6 mg/kg IV) are administered. Alfaxan®-CD RTU should be an excellent alternative to currently available injectable anesthetics when administered for short surgical procedures or as induction to inhalant anesthesia.

Literature Search

Literature Search PDF Author: National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Medicine
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description


Cumulated Index Medicus

Cumulated Index Medicus PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Medicine
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description


Current Bibliographies in Medicine

Current Bibliographies in Medicine PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Medicine
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description


The Cat - E-Book

The Cat - E-Book PDF Author: Susan Little
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437706614
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 1424

View

Book Description
Comprehensive in scope and exclusively devoted to feline medical care, Dr. Susan Little's The Cat: Clinical Medicine and Management is an essential resource for anyone who provides complete, state-of-the-art care to cats. In one convenient volume, you'll find authoritative, clinically-focused information enhanced by full-color illustrations, tables, boxes, algorithms, key points, and much more — all in a format designed for quick access. Dr. Little and her expert contributors address the unique concerns and challenges facing the feline practitioner, including the latest advances in feline medical diagnosis and management and their clinical applications to everyday practice. User-friendly and complete, The Cat is also available as an e-book, giving you easy access to the complete, fully-searchable contents online. Covers the latest advances in feline medicine from a systemic and adjunctive care perspective. It's the most comprehensive feline medical reference available with a strong clinical focus. Helps you meet the increasing demand for state-of-the-art medical care by cat owners — including advanced diagnostic services and treatments designed to extend and improve quality of life for feline companions. Features a full-color design with hundreds of schematic drawings, tables, boxes, key points, algorithms, and photographs for quick and easy access to information. Addresses key topics unique to feline medicine and not currently covered in other books, including: insights and clinical advances attributable to the mapping of the feline genome; medical conditions associated with behavioral problems; managing the feline patient with co-existing and chronic disease; special medical problems and care considerations for the geriatric cat; environmental enrichment for the indoor cat; feline zoonotic agents and implications for human health; and shelter medicine and overpopulation solutions. Provides in-depth information on indoor cats and senior cats, including timely guidance on meeting owners' expectations for longer, healthier lives for their cats. Addresses the challenges of pet overpopulation, particularly the impact of millions of feral cats on public health and the environment. Presents information written in the manner of expanded conference proceedings, delivering the latest insights and most current approaches to management of feline medical disorders. Includes contributions from approximately 60 contributors, drawing on the valuable expertise of those most knowledgeable in the field of feline medical care. Bears the full endorsement of the Winn Feline Foundation, a non-profit organization that supports studies about cat health and funds feline research projects worldwide, and is internationally regarded as a major contributor to the health and wellbeing of all cats. The complete contents also are available online through Veterinary Consult.

Veterinary Anaesthesia E-Book

Veterinary Anaesthesia E-Book PDF Author: Kathy W. Clarke
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0702054232
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 625

View

Book Description
This is a fully revised new edition of this essential text covering anaesthesia and analgesia in all large and small animal species. The new edition has greatly expanded sections on anaesthesia of exotic species such as small mammals, llamas, camels and many more, and also has a new section on anaesthesia of wild animals, both large and small, and birds. The book is divided into 3 sections; the first, Principles and Procedures covers pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, monitoring, sedation and premedication and much more. The second section comprises chapters on anaesthesia in all the main species and the third section covers anaesthesia in special cases, complications and crises ! Almost 200 prints and line illustrations enhance the comprehensive text, and make the new edition of Veterinary Anaesthesia 10/e an essential purchase for all vets ! all large and small animal species covered in one book: includes new advances in anaesthesia in horses, birds, lab animals and wild animals glossary of USA and UK drug names: up-dated coverage of all new anaesthetic agents in Europe and the USA first section covers principles of drug action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics the only book to discuss anaesthesia of individual species in detail: lot of info on anaesthesia of goats, sheep and other herbivores such as camels and llamas also covers analgesia in all species chapter on special cases such as anaesthesia in obstetrics chapter on anaesthetic accidents and crises ! the new edition will be made more student-friendly by adding special boxes in the text which will be relevant for this group. Full revision and update of content