The Big Bang and Other Explosions in Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics

The Big Bang and Other Explosions in Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics PDF Author: David N. Schramm
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810220242
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 710

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Book Description
This volume of important papers by one the world's leading astrophysicists provides a sweeping survey of the incisive and exciting applications of nuclear and particle physics to a wide range of problems in astrophysics and cosmology.The prime focus of the book is on Big Bang cosmology and the role of primordial nucleosynthesis in establishing the modern consensus on the Big Bang. This leads into the connection of cosmology to particle physics and the constraints put on various elementary particles by astrophysical arguments. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis has also led to the argument for nonbaryonic dark matter and is thus related to the major problem in physical cosmology today, namely, structure formation. The nuclear-particle interface with astrophysics also extends to the other topics of major interest such as the age of the universe, cosmic rays, supernovae, and solar neutrinos, each of which will be discussed in some detail. Each section contains historical papers, current papers, and frequently a popular article on the subject which provides an overview of the topic.This volume is testimony to the success of the integration of nuclear and particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology, and to the ingenuity of the work in this area which has earned the author numerous prestigious awards. The book, which is accessible to beginning graduate students, should be of particular interest to researchers and students in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology and gravitation, and also in high energy and nuclear physics.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis PDF Author: David Arnett
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691221669
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 598

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Book Description
This book investigates the question of how matter has evolved since its origin in the Big Bang, from the cosmological synthesis of hydrogen and helium to the generation of the complex set of nuclei that comprise our world and our selves. A central theme is the evolution of gravitationally contained thermonuclear reactors, otherwise known as stars. Our current understanding is presented systematically and quantitatively, by combining simple analytic models with new state-of-the-art computer simulations. The narrative begins with the clues (primarily the solar system abundance pattern), the constraining physics (primarily nuclear and particle physics), and the thermonuclear burning in the Big Bang itself. It continues with a step-by-step description of how stars evolve by nuclear reactions, a critical investigation of supernova explosion mechanisms and the formation of neutron stars and of black holes, and an analysis of how such explosions appear to astronomers (illustrated by comparison with recent observations). It concludes with a synthesis of these ideas for galactic evolution, with implications for nucleosynthesis in the first generation of stars and for the solar system abundance pattern. Emphasis is given to questions that remain open, and to active research areas that bridge the disciplines of astronomy, cosmochemistry, physics, and planetary and space science. Extensive references are given.

Genesis of the Big Bang

Genesis of the Big Bang PDF Author: Ralph A. Alpher
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199761821
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 224

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Book Description
The authors of this volume have been intimately connected with the conception of the Big Bang model since 1947. Following the late George Gamow's ideas in 1942 and more particularly in 1946 that the early universe was an appropriate site for the synthesis of the elements, they became deeply involved in the question of cosmic nucleosynthesis and particularly the synthesis of the light elements. In the course of this work they developed a general relativistic model of the expanding universe with physics folded in, which led in a progressive, logical sequence to our prediction of the existence of a present cosmic background radiation some seventeen years before the observation of such radiation was reported by Penzias and Wilson. In addition, they carried out with James W. Follin, Jr., a detailed study of the physics of what was then considered to be the very early universe, starting a few seconds after the Big Bang, which still provides a methodology for studies of light element nucleosynthesis. Because of their involvement, they bring a personal perspective to the subject. They present a picture of what is now believed to be the state of knowledge about the evolution of the expanding universe and delineate the story of the development of the Big Bang model as they have seen and lived it from their own unique vantage point.

From Ultra Rays to Astroparticles

From Ultra Rays to Astroparticles PDF Author: Brigitte Falkenburg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400754221
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 346

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Book Description
The scope of the book is to give an overview of the history of astroparticle physics, starting with the discovery of cosmic rays (Victor Hess, 1912) and its background (X-ray, radioactivity). The book focusses on the ways in which physics changes in the course of this history. The following changes run parallel, overlap, and/or interact: - Discovery of effects like X-rays, radioactivity, cosmic rays, new particles but also progress through non-discoveries (monopoles) etc. - The change of the description of nature in physics, as consequence of new theoretical questions at the beginning of the 20th century, giving rise to quantum physics, relativity, etc. - The change of experimental methods, cooperations, disciplinary divisions. With regard to the latter change, a main topic of the book is to make the specific multi-diciplinary features of astroparticle physics clear.

Origin And Evolution Of The Universe: From Big Bang To Exobiology (Second Edition)

Origin And Evolution Of The Universe: From Big Bang To Exobiology (Second Edition) PDF Author: Matthew A Malkan
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9811206473
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 248

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Book Description
The book provides a broad overview of what we currently know about the Origin and Evolution of the Universe. The goal is to be scientifically comprehensive but concise. We trace the origins from the Big Bang and cosmic expansion, to the formation of galaxies, heavy elements, stars and planets as abodes for life. This field has made stunning progress since the first edition of this book. At that time, there were no known planets outside of our own Solar System (compared with the many thousands currently being studied). The origin of massive black holes was pure speculation (compared with the very recent detection of the first gravitational waves from space, produced by the cataclysmic merger of two surprisingly large black holes). And the most important energy in the Universe, now known as the Dark Energy which is accelerating the expansion, had not been discovered. We aim to bring lay readers with an interest in science 'up to speed' on all of these key discoveries that are part of the panorama of cosmic evolution, which has ultimately lead to our existence on Earth.

The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology PDF Author: James Trefil
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113675363X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 554

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Book Description
Edited by acclaimed science writer and physicist James Trefil, the Encyclopedia's 1000 entries combine in-depth coverage with a vivid graphic format to bring every facet of science, technology, and medicine into stunning focus. From absolute zero to the Mesozoic era to semiconductors to the twin paradox, Trefil and his co-authors have an uncanny ability to convey how the universe works and to show readers how to apply that knowledge to everyday problems.

A Philosophical Approach to MOND

A Philosophical Approach to MOND PDF Author: David Merritt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108665683
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
Dark matter is a fundamental component of the standard cosmological model, but in spite of four decades of increasingly sensitive searches, no-one has yet detected a single dark-matter particle in the laboratory. An alternative cosmological paradigm exists: MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics). Observations explained in the standard model by postulating dark matter are described in MOND by proposing a modification of Newton's laws of motion. Both MOND and the standard model have had successes and failures – but only MOND has repeatedly predicted observational facts in advance of their discovery. In this volume, David Merritt outlines why such predictions are considered by many philosophers of science to be the 'gold standard' when it comes to judging a theory's validity. In a world where the standard model receives most attention, the author applies criteria from the philosophy of science to assess, in a systematic way, the viability of this alternative cosmological paradigm.

Historical Dictionary of the 1960s

Historical Dictionary of the 1960s PDF Author: James Stuart Olson
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 031329271X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 548

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Book Description
This work takes an encyclopedic look at the people and events that made the 1960s a unique decade in U.S. history.

Conceptions of Cosmos

Conceptions of Cosmos PDF Author: Helge S. Kragh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199209162
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 276

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Book Description
This book is a historical account of how natural philosophers and scientists have endeavoured to understand the universe at large, first in a mythical and later in a scientific context. Starting with the creation stories of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the book covers all the major events in theoretical and observational cosmology, from Aristotle's cosmos over the Copernican revolution to the discovery of the accelerating universe in the late 1990s. It presents cosmology as asubject including scientific as well as non-scientific dimensions, and tells the story of how it developed into a true science of the heavens. Contrary to most other books in the history of cosmology, it offers an integrated account of the development with emphasis on the modern Einsteinian andpost-Einsteinian period. Starting in the pre-literary era, it carries the story onwards to the early years of the 21st century.

Quantum Generations

Quantum Generations PDF Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691095523
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 494

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Book Description
At the end of the nineteenth century, some physicists believed that the basic principles underlying their subject were already known, and that physics in the future would only consist of filling in the details. They could hardly have been more wrong. The past century has seen the rise of quantum mechanics, relativity, cosmology, particle physics, and solid-state physics, among other fields. These subjects have fundamentally changed our understanding of space, time, and matter. They have also transformed daily life, inspiring a technological revolution that has included the development of radio, television, lasers, nuclear power, and computers. In Quantum Generations, Helge Kragh, one of the world's leading historians of physics, presents a sweeping account of these extraordinary achievements of the past one hundred years. The first comprehensive one-volume history of twentieth-century physics, the book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s. Unlike most previous histories of physics, written either from a scientific perspective or from a social and institutional perspective, Quantum Generations combines both approaches. Kragh writes about pure science with the expertise of a trained physicist, while keeping the content accessible to nonspecialists and paying careful attention to practical uses of science, ranging from compact disks to bombs. As a historian, Kragh skillfully outlines the social and economic contexts that have shaped the field in the twentieth century. He writes, for example, about the impact of the two world wars, the fate of physics under Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, the role of military research, the emerging leadership of the United States, and the backlash against science that began in the 1960s. He also shows how the revolutionary discoveries of scientists ranging from Einstein, Planck, and Bohr to Stephen Hawking have been built on the great traditions of earlier centuries. Combining a mastery of detail with a sure sense of the broad contours of historical change, Kragh has written a fitting tribute to the scientists who have played such a decisive role in the making of the modern world.