The Politics of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States and Europe

The Politics of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States and Europe PDF Author: Kelly A. Clancy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319339842
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 173

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Book Description
This book examines the puzzle of why genetically modified organisms continue to be controversial despite scientific evidence declaring them safe for humans and the environment. What explains the sustained levels of resistance? Clancy analyzes the trans-Atlantic controversy by comparing opposition to GMOs in the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Spain, and the United States, examining the way in which science is politicized on both sides of the debate. Ultimately, the author argues that the lack of labeling GMO products in the United States allows opponents to create far-fetched images of GMOs that work their ways in to the minds of the public. The way forward out of this seemingly intractable debate is to allow GMOs, once tested, to enter the market without penalty—and then to label them.

When Cooperation Fails

When Cooperation Fails PDF Author: Mark A. Pollack
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191568902
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 464

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Book Description
The transatlantic dispute over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has brought into conflict the United States and the European Union, two long-time allies and economically interdependent democracies with a long record of successful cooperation. Yet the dispute - pitting a largely acceptant US against an EU deeply suspicious of GMOs - has developed into one of the most bitter and intractable transatlantic and global conflicts, resisting efforts at negotiated resolution and resulting in a bitterly contested legal battle before the World Trade Organization. Professors Pollack and Shaffer investigate the obstacles to reconciling regulatory differences among nations through international cooperation, using the lens of the GMO dispute. The book addresses the dynamic interactions of domestic law and politics, transnational networks, international regimes, and global markets, through a theoretically grounded and empirically comprehensive analysis of the governance of GM foods and crops. They demonstrate that the deeply politicized, entrenched and path-dependent nature of the regulation of GMOs in the US and the EU has fundamentally shaped negotiations and decision-making at the international level, limiting the prospects for deliberation and providing incentives for both sides to engage in hard bargaining and to "shop" for favorable international forums. They then assess the impacts, and the limits, of international pressures on domestic US and European law, politics and business practice, which have remained strikingly resistant to change. International cooperation in areas like GMO regulation, the authors conclude, must overcome multiple obstacles, legal and political, domestic and international. Any effective response to this persistent dispute, they argue, must recognize both the obstacles to successful cooperation, and the options that remain for each side when cooperation fails.

Grains of Doubt

Grains of Doubt PDF Author: Kelly Ann Clancy
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Comparative government
Languages : en
Pages : 292

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Book Description
The dissertation focuses on two lines of inquiry. First, why are GMOs objects of contention? Second, why, and under what conditions, is opposition to GMOs successful? To answer these questions, I examine the way in which GMOs are depicted as objects of contention on the global and local level. Part One provides a framework for the project. Chapter Two presents the constructivist approach to the study of resistance to GMOs. Discourse and images are examined from the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Spain, and the United States. Part Two examines the global level of GMOs from an ideological and regulatory perspective. Chapter Three first examines the ideological component by exploring how sound science is projected in the United States and Europe. The narrative has three parts: it advances a neoliberal narrative of the technology, arguing that non-sound science approaches are in fact attempts to politicize trade. This establishes a relationship between science, free trade, and GMOs. The second part of the narrative posits that failure to embrace GMOs will lead to a catastrophe. The third part of the narrative scapegoats the public, arguing that public ignorance will block GMOs, thereby ensuring the catastrophe. Chapter Four also focuses on the global level by examining the regulatory context in the European Union, as well as the trade conflicts between the EU and the US. Part Three turns to the domestic, or local, level, presenting five case studies. These case studies compare the political, economic, cultural, and public opinion of GMOs across countries, establishing the variance in the domestic context. Part Four looks at the images produced by the opponents of GMOs. The images are a successful refutation to the "sound science" narrative because they provide universal symbols of doubt and critique that can be redeployed within specific cultural contexts. The power of resistance is found within the logic employed by visual hegemony: the strategy of GMO resistance is to circumnavigate the logic of rationality of the proponents of GMOs and substitute the synecdotal reasoning that communicates a diffuse narrative of doubt and mistrust which critiques of the process, product, and implications.

The International Politics of Genetically Modified Food

The International Politics of Genetically Modified Food PDF Author: R. Falkner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230598196
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 265

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Book Description
Genetically modified food is at the heart of a new global conflict over how to govern risky technologies in an era of globalization. This timely collection brings together experts from the fields of IR, environmental studies, trade and law to examine the sources of international friction and to explore the prospects for international co-operation.

Genetically Modified Food

Genetically Modified Food PDF Author: Marie Kreipe
Publisher: Diplomica Verlag
ISBN: 3842850131
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 96

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Book Description
The controversial issue of genetically modified (GM) food is discussed in this book. While the United States (US) is a strong supporter of GM technology having adopted a rather lax regulation of trade with GM products, the European Union (EU) is representing a sceptical position towards this new technology and has even imposed a de facto moratorium on further approval of GM products from 1998 to 2004. The purpose of this book is an extensive analysis of the current status on risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and a suggestion on how an appropriate regulation of GM products could be derived. Potential guidelines are provided for policy formulation both in a qualitative and in a quantitative dimension. The US is applying the principle of substantial equivalence, which means that GM products are in their substance identical to products produced by conventional methods. Therefore, no new regulations are necessary for the trade with GM products. In contrast, the European Union (EU) disagrees that GM products are equivalent to their conventional counterparts due to the different production process. Instead, the EU refers to the precautionary principle in its GMO policy, meaning that trade with GM products should be restricted until it will be proven that no additional risks are implied by the use of these products. The divergence of opinions about the right policy to regulate GM products has significant impacts on trade flows and welfare effects. The US and the EU have already tried to resolve their dispute before the World Trade Organization (WTO). Relevant laws of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the WTO are presented as well as indications for a potential consensus.

Governing Molecules

Governing Molecules PDF Author: Herbert Gottweis
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262262781
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 408

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Book Description
Scientists, investors, policymakers, the media, and the general public have all displayed a continuing interest in the commercial promise and potential dangers of genetic engineering. In this book, Herbert Gottweis explains how genetic engineering became so controversial—a technology that some seek to promote by any means and others want to block entirely. Beginning with a clear exposition of poststructuralist theory and its implications for research methodology, Gottweis offers a novel approach to political analysis, emphasizing the essential role of narratives in the development of policy under contemporary conditions. Drawing on more than eighty in-depth interviews and extensive archival work, Gottweis traces today's controversy back to the sociopolitical and scientific origins of molecular biology, paying particular attention to its relationship to eugenics. He argues that over the decades a number of mutually reinforcing political and scientific strategies have attempted to turn genes into objects of technological intervention—to make them "governable." Looking at critical events such as the 1975 Asilomar conference in the United States, the escalating conflict in Germany, and regulatory disputes in Britain and France during the 1980s, Gottweis argues that it was the struggle over boundaries and representations of genetic engineering, politics, and society that defined the political dynamics of the drafting of risk regulations in these countries. In a key chapter on biotechnology research, industry, and supporting technology policies, Gottweis demonstrates that the interpretation of genetic engineering as the core of a new "high technology" industry was part of a policy myth and an expression of identity politics. He suggests that under postmodern conditions a major strategy for avoiding policy failure is to create conditions that ensure tolerance and respect for the multiplicity of socially available policy narratives and reality interpretations.

Precautionary Politics

Precautionary Politics PDF Author: Kerry H Whiteside
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026226515X
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 200

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Book Description
The precautionary principle—which holds that action to address threats of serious or irreversible environmental harm should be taken even in the absence of scientific certainty—has been accepted as a key feature of environmental law throughout the European Union. In the United States, however, it is still widely unknown, and much of what has been written on the topic takes a negative view. Precautionary Politics provides a comprehensive analysis of the precautionary principle—its origins and development, its meaning and rationale, its theoretical context, and its policy implications. Kerry Whiteside looks at the application of the principle (and the controversies it has stirred) and compares European and American attitudes toward it and toward environmental regulation in general. Too often, Whiteside argues, American critics of the precautionary principle pay insufficient attention to how the principle has been debated, refined, and elaborated elsewhere. Precautionary Politics fills this gap. Whiteside demonstrates the different responses of Europe and the United States, first by describing the controversy over genetically modified crops, and then by using this example throughout the book to illustrate application of the precautionary principle in different contexts. He contrasts the European view that new types of risk require specially adapted modes of regulation with the American method of science-based risk assessment, and argues that despite Bush administration opposition, U.S.-European convergence on precaution is possible. Finally, he looks at the ways in which participatory innovation can help produce environmentally positive results. Whiteside's systematic defense of the precautionary principle will be an important resource for students, scholars, activists, and policymakers and is particularly suitable for classroom use.

Designs on Nature

Designs on Nature PDF Author: Sheila Jasanoff
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400837316
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 392

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Book Description
Biology and politics have converged today across much of the industrialized world. Debates about genetically modified organisms, cloning, stem cells, animal patenting, and new reproductive technologies crowd media headlines and policy agendas. Less noticed, but no less important, are the rifts that have appeared among leading Western nations about the right way to govern innovation in genetics and biotechnology. These significant differences in law and policy, and in ethical analysis, may in a globalizing world act as obstacles to free trade, scientific inquiry, and shared understandings of human dignity. In this magisterial look at some twenty-five years of scientific and social development, Sheila Jasanoff compares the politics and policy of the life sciences in Britain, Germany, the United States, and in the European Union as a whole. She shows how public and private actors in each setting evaluated new manifestations of biotechnology and tried to reassure themselves about their safety. Three main themes emerge. First, core concepts of democratic theory, such as citizenship, deliberation, and accountability, cannot be understood satisfactorily without taking on board the politics of science and technology. Second, in all three countries, policies for the life sciences have been incorporated into "nation-building" projects that seek to reimagine what the nation stands for. Third, political culture influences democratic politics, and it works through the institutionalized ways in which citizens understand and evaluate public knowledge. These three aspects of contemporary politics, Jasanoff argues, help account not only for policy divergences but also for the perceived legitimacy of state actions.

The Politics of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States and Europe

The Politics of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States and Europe PDF Author: Kelly A. Clancy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319339842
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 173

View

Book Description
This book examines the puzzle of why genetically modified organisms continue to be controversial despite scientific evidence declaring them safe for humans and the environment. What explains the sustained levels of resistance? Clancy analyzes the trans-Atlantic controversy by comparing opposition to GMOs in the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Spain, and the United States, examining the way in which science is politicized on both sides of the debate. Ultimately, the author argues that the lack of labeling GMO products in the United States allows opponents to create far-fetched images of GMOs that work their ways in to the minds of the public. The way forward out of this seemingly intractable debate is to allow GMOs, once tested, to enter the market without penalty—and then to label them.

When Cooperation Fails

When Cooperation Fails PDF Author: Mark A. Pollack
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191568902
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 464

View

Book Description
The transatlantic dispute over genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has brought into conflict the United States and the European Union, two long-time allies and economically interdependent democracies with a long record of successful cooperation. Yet the dispute - pitting a largely acceptant US against an EU deeply suspicious of GMOs - has developed into one of the most bitter and intractable transatlantic and global conflicts, resisting efforts at negotiated resolution and resulting in a bitterly contested legal battle before the World Trade Organization. Professors Pollack and Shaffer investigate the obstacles to reconciling regulatory differences among nations through international cooperation, using the lens of the GMO dispute. The book addresses the dynamic interactions of domestic law and politics, transnational networks, international regimes, and global markets, through a theoretically grounded and empirically comprehensive analysis of the governance of GM foods and crops. They demonstrate that the deeply politicized, entrenched and path-dependent nature of the regulation of GMOs in the US and the EU has fundamentally shaped negotiations and decision-making at the international level, limiting the prospects for deliberation and providing incentives for both sides to engage in hard bargaining and to "shop" for favorable international forums. They then assess the impacts, and the limits, of international pressures on domestic US and European law, politics and business practice, which have remained strikingly resistant to change. International cooperation in areas like GMO regulation, the authors conclude, must overcome multiple obstacles, legal and political, domestic and international. Any effective response to this persistent dispute, they argue, must recognize both the obstacles to successful cooperation, and the options that remain for each side when cooperation fails.

Subnational Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States and the European Union

Subnational Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United States and the European Union PDF Author: Anna Milena Zivian
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 1034

View

Book Description


Grains of Doubt

Grains of Doubt PDF Author: Kelly Ann Clancy
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Comparative government
Languages : en
Pages : 292

View

Book Description
The dissertation focuses on two lines of inquiry. First, why are GMOs objects of contention? Second, why, and under what conditions, is opposition to GMOs successful? To answer these questions, I examine the way in which GMOs are depicted as objects of contention on the global and local level. Part One provides a framework for the project. Chapter Two presents the constructivist approach to the study of resistance to GMOs. Discourse and images are examined from the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Spain, and the United States. Part Two examines the global level of GMOs from an ideological and regulatory perspective. Chapter Three first examines the ideological component by exploring how sound science is projected in the United States and Europe. The narrative has three parts: it advances a neoliberal narrative of the technology, arguing that non-sound science approaches are in fact attempts to politicize trade. This establishes a relationship between science, free trade, and GMOs. The second part of the narrative posits that failure to embrace GMOs will lead to a catastrophe. The third part of the narrative scapegoats the public, arguing that public ignorance will block GMOs, thereby ensuring the catastrophe. Chapter Four also focuses on the global level by examining the regulatory context in the European Union, as well as the trade conflicts between the EU and the US. Part Three turns to the domestic, or local, level, presenting five case studies. These case studies compare the political, economic, cultural, and public opinion of GMOs across countries, establishing the variance in the domestic context. Part Four looks at the images produced by the opponents of GMOs. The images are a successful refutation to the "sound science" narrative because they provide universal symbols of doubt and critique that can be redeployed within specific cultural contexts. The power of resistance is found within the logic employed by visual hegemony: the strategy of GMO resistance is to circumnavigate the logic of rationality of the proponents of GMOs and substitute the synecdotal reasoning that communicates a diffuse narrative of doubt and mistrust which critiques of the process, product, and implications.

The International Politics of Genetically Modified Food

The International Politics of Genetically Modified Food PDF Author: R. Falkner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230598196
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 265

View

Book Description
Genetically modified food is at the heart of a new global conflict over how to govern risky technologies in an era of globalization. This timely collection brings together experts from the fields of IR, environmental studies, trade and law to examine the sources of international friction and to explore the prospects for international co-operation.

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) PDF Author: Krissada Promvek
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789749732496
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 258

View

Book Description


Genetically Modified Food

Genetically Modified Food PDF Author: Marie Kreipe
Publisher: Diplomica Verlag
ISBN: 3842850131
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 96

View

Book Description
The controversial issue of genetically modified (GM) food is discussed in this book. While the United States (US) is a strong supporter of GM technology having adopted a rather lax regulation of trade with GM products, the European Union (EU) is representing a sceptical position towards this new technology and has even imposed a de facto moratorium on further approval of GM products from 1998 to 2004. The purpose of this book is an extensive analysis of the current status on risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and a suggestion on how an appropriate regulation of GM products could be derived. Potential guidelines are provided for policy formulation both in a qualitative and in a quantitative dimension. The US is applying the principle of substantial equivalence, which means that GM products are in their substance identical to products produced by conventional methods. Therefore, no new regulations are necessary for the trade with GM products. In contrast, the European Union (EU) disagrees that GM products are equivalent to their conventional counterparts due to the different production process. Instead, the EU refers to the precautionary principle in its GMO policy, meaning that trade with GM products should be restricted until it will be proven that no additional risks are implied by the use of these products. The divergence of opinions about the right policy to regulate GM products has significant impacts on trade flows and welfare effects. The US and the EU have already tried to resolve their dispute before the World Trade Organization (WTO). Relevant laws of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the WTO are presented as well as indications for a potential consensus.

Governing Molecules

Governing Molecules PDF Author: Herbert Gottweis
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262262781
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 408

View

Book Description
Scientists, investors, policymakers, the media, and the general public have all displayed a continuing interest in the commercial promise and potential dangers of genetic engineering. In this book, Herbert Gottweis explains how genetic engineering became so controversial—a technology that some seek to promote by any means and others want to block entirely. Beginning with a clear exposition of poststructuralist theory and its implications for research methodology, Gottweis offers a novel approach to political analysis, emphasizing the essential role of narratives in the development of policy under contemporary conditions. Drawing on more than eighty in-depth interviews and extensive archival work, Gottweis traces today's controversy back to the sociopolitical and scientific origins of molecular biology, paying particular attention to its relationship to eugenics. He argues that over the decades a number of mutually reinforcing political and scientific strategies have attempted to turn genes into objects of technological intervention—to make them "governable." Looking at critical events such as the 1975 Asilomar conference in the United States, the escalating conflict in Germany, and regulatory disputes in Britain and France during the 1980s, Gottweis argues that it was the struggle over boundaries and representations of genetic engineering, politics, and society that defined the political dynamics of the drafting of risk regulations in these countries. In a key chapter on biotechnology research, industry, and supporting technology policies, Gottweis demonstrates that the interpretation of genetic engineering as the core of a new "high technology" industry was part of a policy myth and an expression of identity politics. He suggests that under postmodern conditions a major strategy for avoiding policy failure is to create conditions that ensure tolerance and respect for the multiplicity of socially available policy narratives and reality interpretations.

Precautionary Politics

Precautionary Politics PDF Author: Kerry H Whiteside
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026226515X
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 200

View

Book Description
The precautionary principle—which holds that action to address threats of serious or irreversible environmental harm should be taken even in the absence of scientific certainty—has been accepted as a key feature of environmental law throughout the European Union. In the United States, however, it is still widely unknown, and much of what has been written on the topic takes a negative view. Precautionary Politics provides a comprehensive analysis of the precautionary principle—its origins and development, its meaning and rationale, its theoretical context, and its policy implications. Kerry Whiteside looks at the application of the principle (and the controversies it has stirred) and compares European and American attitudes toward it and toward environmental regulation in general. Too often, Whiteside argues, American critics of the precautionary principle pay insufficient attention to how the principle has been debated, refined, and elaborated elsewhere. Precautionary Politics fills this gap. Whiteside demonstrates the different responses of Europe and the United States, first by describing the controversy over genetically modified crops, and then by using this example throughout the book to illustrate application of the precautionary principle in different contexts. He contrasts the European view that new types of risk require specially adapted modes of regulation with the American method of science-based risk assessment, and argues that despite Bush administration opposition, U.S.-European convergence on precaution is possible. Finally, he looks at the ways in which participatory innovation can help produce environmentally positive results. Whiteside's systematic defense of the precautionary principle will be an important resource for students, scholars, activists, and policymakers and is particularly suitable for classroom use.

Designs on Nature

Designs on Nature PDF Author: Sheila Jasanoff
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400837316
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 392

View

Book Description
Biology and politics have converged today across much of the industrialized world. Debates about genetically modified organisms, cloning, stem cells, animal patenting, and new reproductive technologies crowd media headlines and policy agendas. Less noticed, but no less important, are the rifts that have appeared among leading Western nations about the right way to govern innovation in genetics and biotechnology. These significant differences in law and policy, and in ethical analysis, may in a globalizing world act as obstacles to free trade, scientific inquiry, and shared understandings of human dignity. In this magisterial look at some twenty-five years of scientific and social development, Sheila Jasanoff compares the politics and policy of the life sciences in Britain, Germany, the United States, and in the European Union as a whole. She shows how public and private actors in each setting evaluated new manifestations of biotechnology and tried to reassure themselves about their safety. Three main themes emerge. First, core concepts of democratic theory, such as citizenship, deliberation, and accountability, cannot be understood satisfactorily without taking on board the politics of science and technology. Second, in all three countries, policies for the life sciences have been incorporated into "nation-building" projects that seek to reimagine what the nation stands for. Third, political culture influences democratic politics, and it works through the institutionalized ways in which citizens understand and evaluate public knowledge. These three aspects of contemporary politics, Jasanoff argues, help account not only for policy divergences but also for the perceived legitimacy of state actions.